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Rajya Sabha TV for IAS Exam Preparation. In the three stages of the IAS exam – prelims, mains and the personality test, the traditional knowledge combined with the current affairs are important. RSTV programs cover both aspects. The video explains how UPSC exam questions have been asked that were based on discussions on the Rajya Sabha TV. The Rajya Sabha TV programs for UPSC exam are The Big Picture, India’s World, Law of the Land, Science Monitor, Policy Watch, Security Scan, Desh Deshantar, Samvidhaan – The Making of the Constitution of India, Main Bhi Bharat, Vishesh and State of the Economy.
THE HINDU KUSH HIMALAYA ASSESSMENT REPORT:
The report was made together by researchers, experts and policymakers, brought by Hindu Kush Himalayan Monitoring and Assessment Report (HIMAP) and International centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD)
The Assessment has been titled “Mountain, Climate Change, Sustainability and People”.
According to report, even the most ambitious goal set by the Paris Agreement to limit global warming would lead to a 2.1 spike in temperature in the Hindu Kush Region, leading to melting of 1/3rd of the region’s glaciers by 2100, potentially destabilizing Asia’s rivers.
If the Green House Gas emissions continue at their current level, the region can loose up to 2/3rd of its ice. So, the amount of GHG emissions will determine the amount of glaciers melted in these mountainous ranges.
The melting of these glaciers will put a threat on 1.9 billion people.
Hind Kush, the world’s third pole is 3,500 km long spread over 8 countries in South Asia and home to 10 major river basins is under severe threat of climate change.
8 Countries covered by Hindu Kush Himalayas (HKH region): Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan.
10 Major river basins in HKH region: Amu Darya, Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, Irrawaddy, Mekong, Salween, Tarim, Yangtze, Yellow rivers.
The HKH region form the largest area of permanent ice cover outside of the North and South Poles, and so are often referred to as “Third Pole”.
HKH region is home to 4 global biodiversity hotspots, several important bird areas, and hundreds of mountain peaks. It provides ecosystem services (water, food, energy, etc) to nearly 2 billion people through its river basins.
Melting of glaciers can be a threat to water and food security and increase the risks of disasters.
Elevation Dependent Warming is a phenomenon of more increase in temperature in mountains than at lower altitudes.
Since the 1970s, about 15% of ice in the HKH region has disappeared as temperature have risen.
Water supply in the region is closely dependant on rainfall during monsoon and trickling meltwater from glaciers during dry season.
Lower flows of river water due to glacial melting will cut power from hydro dams that generate much of the region’s electricity.
Farmers in the foothills and downstream will face a serious impact.
Impacts of climate change globally:
Climate change is bringing rising incidents of disasters like wildfires, cyclones, hurricanes, droughts, floods, etc.
Rising human development and industrial progress are held responsible for the climate change occurring today. Natural resources like trees are being cut for urbanization and non-renewable resources (like fossil fuels) are being used at a very high rate.
Global temperatures are rising and extreme weather conditions are being witnessed.
Mountain glaciers and ice sheets covering Antarctica, Greenland and Arctic Sea are vanishing.
Rapid rise in sea level in recent years has threatened low-lying islands and coastal cities.
Wildlife and their habitats are affected. Some species are being pushed towards extinction.
Ocean acidity is increasing that threatens shellfish, including crustaceans, affecting marine food chains.
Agriculture is facing a threat.
Initiatives done by the Government of India in recent years to save the environment:
Formation of International Solar Alliance (ISA)
Focus on increasing forest cover.
National Clean Air Program (NCAP)
Launch of National Air Quality Index in 2015
Namami Gange Program for cleaning Ganga river.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan.
Pradhan Mantri Ujjawala Yojana to increase LPG connections.
Waste management has emerged as a priority issue.
Focus on electrical vehicles.
Reducing the use of single use