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What is the Evidence for Evolution?
 
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Support Stated Clearly on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/statedclearly Biologists teach that all living things on Earth are related. Is there any solid evidence to back this claim? Join us as we explore the facts! We start with a close look at the origin of whales from land mammals, and then touch on the origins of several other critters, including our own species. If you want to learn more about whale fossils and evolution, we have articles for you to enjoy on our website! http://statedclearly.com/articles/category/evolution To learn more about whale embryos, check out the work of Dr. Hans Thewissen here: http://web.neomed.edu/web/anatomy/DLDD/index.html For an in-depth view of whale evolution, read Dr. Hans Thewissen's new book "The Walking Whales" http://www.ucpress.edu/book.php?isbn=9780520277069 Corrections: Dolphin embryos shown in this animation come from spotted dolphins. Adult is a dusky dolphin. Photo of bowhead whale pelvis comes from the Department of Wildlife Management, Barrow, Alaska
Views: 2980851 Stated Clearly
‘Dark DNA’ Is the Latest Mystery in the World of Genetics… But What Is It?
 
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Seeker is nominated for a Webby! VOTE HERE: https://vote.webbyawards.com/PublicVoting#/2018/film-video/virtual-reality-360-video/vr-branded-interactive-game-or-real-time Scientists are beginning to understand mysterious parts of our DNA. Here’s what they’ve found so far. Rapid Evolution Is Real…These Species Changed in Front of Our Eyes - https://youtu.be/DrgR_tSVdLU Read More: Inside the Mysterious Dark Matter of the Human Genome https://www.popsci.com/science/article/2012-09/encode-project-sheds-light “When scientists sequenced the human genome a decade ago, it was somewhat like looking at a blueprint in a foreign language — everything was marked in its proper location, but no one could tell what it all meant.” Dark Dna: The Missing Matter At The Heart Of Nature https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg23731680-200-dark-dna “The discovery that some animals thrive despite hugely mutated DNA hidden in their genome is forcing us to rethink some basics of evolution.” ‘Dark Matter’ Dna Influences Brain Development https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-00920-x “A puzzle posed by segments of 'dark matter' in genomes — long, winding strands of DNA with no obvious functions — has teased scientists for more than a decade. Now, a team has finally solved the riddle.” ____________________ Seeker inspires us to see the world through the lens of science and evokes a sense of curiosity, optimism and adventure. Visit the Seeker website https://www.seeker.com/videos Subscribe now! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=dnewschannel Seeker on Twitter http://twitter.com/seeker Trace Dominguez on Twitter https://twitter.com/tracedominguez Seeker on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/SeekerMedia/ Seeker http://www.seeker.com/ Special thanks to Julian Huguet for hosting and writing this episode of Seeker! Check Julian out on Twitter: https://twitter.com/jhug00
Views: 871064 Seeker
What Is the RNA World Hypothesis?
 
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Click this link to take a survey about the video: https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/VS8SNBH All living creatures today reproduce and evolve using a complex gene-enzyme cycle. If we look at a cell, for example, information encoded in its genes is used to produce functional proteins called enzymes. Some of those enzymes then turn around to make copies of the cell's genes, allowing the cell to reproduce. Because the gene-enzyme system forms a closed loop, it presents us with a classic chicken or egg conundrum: Which came first, genes or the protein enzymes they code for? While the details are still not fully worked out, discoveries over the past few decades have lead researchers to a surprising possible solution: What really came first? Genes that act as enzymes! The RNA World Hypothesis is the idea that before living cells, the genetic code, and the gene/protein cycle ever existed, chains of a chemical called RNA were forming naturally. Once formed, some of these chains were able to function as enzymes, and were even able to evolve by making copies of themselves with slight, accidental modifications. While there is little doubt that RNA played a crucial role in the early development of life, the complexity of RNA is casting doubt on the idea that RNA was the first truly replicating and evolving chemical system. For this reason, alternatives to the “RNA first” view are also being investigated. Most notable is a proto-RNA hypothesis being studied by the lab of Nicholas Hud, and several metabolism first hypotheses which got their start from the work of Robert Shapiro. At this time, all serious investigations into the origin of life are being done under the overarching idea that life emerged from chemistry. SOURCES AND FURTHER READING RIBOZYMES The first RNA enzymes were discovered in 1982, now known as ribozymes. Here’s is a wonderful review of what we now know about ribozymes (well... as of 2002): Scientific Paper: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3770912/ Diverse and highly functional ribozymes can be evolved in the lab. Selection experiments have shown there are many pathways that evolution can take to produce a ribozyme with a given function. This means the evolution of function is much simpler than previously thought! Scientific Paper: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3902939/ Nucleotide building ribozymes have been evolved in the lab from random starting chains (this is the experiment discussed in our animation): Scientific Paper: http://www.sfu.ca/~punrau/pdfs/Lau_JACS_2004.pdf INITIAL RNA NUCLEOTIDE SYNTHESIS RNA nucleotides have been shown to form without enzymes under conditions that might have been plausible on the early Earth. That said, the reactions we’ve discovered so far do not appear robust enough to claim that the problem is fully solved: Scientific Paper: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v459/n7244/abs/nature08013.html Nature News overview of the discovery with objections discussed: http://www.nature.com/news/2009/090513/full/news.2009.471.html RNA REPLICATION BEFORE EVOLUTION OF ENZYMES 8 problems with RNA replication and likely solutions to them (note: number 8 now has two independent solutions demonstrated in the lab): Scientific Paper: https://jsystchem.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/1759-2208-3-2 ALTERNATIVES TO THE RNA WORLD HYPOTHESIS Here is an article reviewing the metabolism first hypothesis in contrast to the RNA first view: Blog post by professor Laurance Moran: http://sandwalk.blogspot.com/2009/05/metabolism-first-and-origin-of-life.html Here is an article reviewing research into a possible proto RNA World Hypothesis: Media article by quanta magazine https://www.quantamagazine.org/20140205-chemists-pursue-possible-precursor-to-rna/ Learn more about evolution and the origin of life at http://statedclearly.com and at http://centerforchemicalevolution.com
Views: 446987 Stated Clearly
Human Origins 101 | National Geographic
 
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The story of human evolution began about 7 million years ago, when the lineages that lead to Homo sapiens and chimpanzees separated. Learn about the over 20 early human species that belong in our family tree and how the natural selection of certain physical and behavioral traits defined what it means to be human. ➡ Subscribe: http://bit.ly/NatGeoSubscribe #NationalGeographic #HumanOrigins About National Geographic: National Geographic is the world's premium destination for science, exploration, and adventure. Through their world-class scientists, photographers, journalists, and filmmakers, Nat Geo gets you closer to the stories that matter and past the edge of what's possible. Get More National Geographic: Official Site: http://bit.ly/NatGeoOfficialSite Facebook: http://bit.ly/FBNatGeo Twitter: http://bit.ly/NatGeoTwitter Instagram: http://bit.ly/NatGeoInsta Human Origins 101 | National Geographic https://youtu.be/ehV-MmuvVMU National Geographic https://www.youtube.com/natgeo
Views: 480069 National Geographic
Endosymbiotic Theory
 
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Explore the endosymbiotic theory with the Amoeba Sisters! This theory explains the development of the eukaryote cell from prokaryote cell symbiosis. Scientific theories are also briefly defined. Expand details to see table of contents. 👇 This video has a handout here: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Table of Contents: What is a Scientific Theory? 0:17 Endosymbiotic Theory Defined 0:45 Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes 1:03 Prokaryote Diversity (focusing on select ones in theory) 1:52 Endosymbiotic Theory Shown 2:21 Revealing Organelle Development 3:06 Facts that Support Endosymbiotic Theory 3:46 -Video mentions 4 facts: 3:53, 4:00, 4:07, 4:12 but video mentions this is only a few of many more. Endosymbiosis Example in Termites 4:39 Support us on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/amoebasisters Our FREE resources: GIFs: http://www.amoebasisters.com/gifs.html Handouts: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Comics: http://www.amoebasisters.com/parameciumparlorcomics Connect with us! Website: http://www.AmoebaSisters.com Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/AmoebaSisters Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AmoebaSisters Tumblr: http://www.amoebasisters.tumblr.com Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/AmoebaSister­s Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/amoebasistersofficial/ Visit our Redbubble store at http://www.amoebasisters.com/store.html The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching science at the high school level. Pinky's teacher certification is in grades 4-8 science and 8-12 composite science (encompassing biology, chemistry, and physics). Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach, and they focus on her specialty: secondary life science. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit: http://www.amoebasisters.com/about-us.html We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology Further Reading: This article is fascinating in that it talks about the relationship such a symbiosis may have with parasitism: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1312238/ We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines https://www.youtube.com/yt/policyandsafety/communityguidelines.html and YouTube's policy center https://support.google.com/youtube/topic/2676378?hl=en&ref_topic=6151248. We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language. Music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/music?feature=blog We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages. YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are thankful for those that contribute different languages. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.
Views: 217215 Amoeba Sisters
Vestigial Structures
 
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Hank talks about some of the structures in our bodies that are "leftover" from previous evolutionary phases of humanity. Like SciShow on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Follow SciShow on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Sources: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19826562.100-vestigial-organs-remnants-of-evolution.html Coccyx: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1571308/figure/fig05/ http://www.livescience.com/11317-top-10-useless-limbs-vestigial-organs.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vestigial
Views: 501776 SciShow
Evolution Short Tricks|Ncert Biology For NEET|AIIMS|JIPMER|Class 12|Biology Bytes
 
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Memory techniques for studying Evolution - Different examples of homologous and analogous structures to make good class 11 & class 12 Biology notes using these science tricks in hindi.Also Good for Biology G.k in hindi. We will see Evolution of class 12 ncert in detail. #ShortTricksWithBiologyByte ►Other videos you will love want to watch: Best Ways To Concentrate On Studies: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hGI-Q7s_UTM How To Study In A Short Time:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lRM0ooHG3SE How To Study For Long Hours Effectively: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=impEgcczTyE What Is the best time To Study Day Or Night? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lHGVBvBlCbQ ◄ ◅✦ ☾ Thank you for watching! ☽✦ ▸ ▹ For more latest video and articles, stay connected and get updates from me. Follow biologybyte on social media: Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/BiologyByte-... Google+ - https://plus.google.com/u/0/+HAPPYNES...
Views: 142494 BiologyByte
The 10 Oldest Fossils, and What They Say About Evolution
 
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Wouldn’t it be cool to be able to point at a fossil and know that it’s the first, say, plant? Well... yeah! But it's not that easy! Scientists are always making new discoveries that throw all our old assumptions into question, but we've put together a list of the oldest fossils of their kind that we know of so far! If you liked this video, check out more videos about natural history and paleontology on SciShow's sister channel, Eons: https://www.youtube.com/eons Hosted by: Michael Aranda ---------- Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow ---------- Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters -- we couldn't make SciShow without them! Shout out to Justin Ove, Andreas Heydeck, Justin Lentz, Will and Sonja Marple, Benny, Chris Peters, Tim Curwick, Philippe von Bergen, Patrick, Fatima Iqbal, Lucy McGlasson, Mark Terrio-Cameron, Accalia Elementia, Kathy & Tim Philip, charles george, Kevin Bealer, Thomas J., and Patrick D. Ashmore. ---------- Like SciShow? Want to help support us, and also get things to put on your walls, cover your torso and hold your liquids? Check out our awesome products over at DFTBA Records: http://dftba.com/scishow ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Instagram: http://instagram.com/thescishow ---------- Sources: http://www.techinsider.io/oldest-fossils-ever-discovered-2015-10 http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/10/scientists-may-have-found-earliest-evidence-life-earth http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria/cyanofr.html http://www.fossilmuseum.net/Tree_of_Life/Stromatolites.htm http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3478915.stm http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/palaeofiles/fossilgroups/crustacea/fossils.html http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cambrian/burgess.html http://burgess-shale.rom.on.ca/en/fossil-gallery/view-species.php?id=32 http://paleobiology.si.edu/burgess/canadaspis.html http://palaeos.com/vertebrates/vertebrata/craniata.html#Haikouichthys http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v520/n7548/full/nature14437.html https://nature.ca/notebooks/english/coalrep.htm http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/h/hylonomus.html https://finstofeet.com/2012/01/05/coming-of-the-amniotes/ http://news.bbc.co.uk/earth/hi/earth_news/newsid_9079000/9079963.stm http://www.livescience.com/15734-oldest-placental-mammal.html http://www.nature.com/news/rival-species-recast-significance-of-first-bird-1.16469 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v520/n7548/full/nature14438.html http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/o/obruchevichthys.html http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/e/elginerpeton.html http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v373/n6513/abs/373420a0.html http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/01/100106-tetrapod-tracks-oldest-footprints-nature-evolution-walking-land/ http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/news/110901_earlymammals http://www.slate.com/articles/video/video/2013/09/first_face_entelognathus_primordialis_the_fish_that_is_changing_evolutionary.html http://www.nature.com/news/ancient-fish-face-shows-roots-of-modern-jaw-1.13823
Views: 973539 SciShow
How Does Cooperation Evolve?
 
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If you find this animation helpful, consider supporting our work at http://statedclearly.com/contribute/ Lichen is a combination of algae and fungus (and in many cases, a third species of yeast) living together. This relationship allows the intertwined organisms to survive in locations they could never live on their own. If evolution is all about "survival of the fittest", how does cooperation evolve? Living things form cooperative relationships all the time. Research done by applying mathematics to biology is helping us understand the evolution of cooperation. Cooperation has caused some of the major evolutionary steps in the history of life, including the step from single celled creatures to multi-cellular plants and animals. Scientists used mathematical models to find scenarios in which natural selection will actually favor cooperation. Sources: Many species of fungus feed on lichen: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4047527/ Kin selection combined with budding can give rise to cooperation: Demography, altruism, and the benefits of budding: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1420-9101.2006.01104.x/abstract Mathematical Models of cooperation: Kin Selection: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022519364900384 Direct Reciprocation: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8316296/ Indirect Reciprocation: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10797005/ Network Reciprocation: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v433/n7023/full/nature03204.html Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17158317 New Discovery of a 3rd partner (yeast) in many Lichen: http://theconversation.com/lichens-may-be-a-symbiosis-of-three-organisms-a-new-order-of-fungus-named-63334
Views: 55913 Stated Clearly
Does the Theory of Evolution Really Matter?
 
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Support Stated Clearly on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/statedclearly Students who may be disinterested or uncomfortable with the science of evolution often wonder why it is worth their time and effort to understand. Stated Clearly and Emory University's Center for Science Education have joined forces to create this animation addressing these concerns. The discovery of biological evolution is among the most significant scientific findings of the last 200 years. It has lead us to thousands of new discoveries and is greatly expanding our understanding of the natural world. Here we look at 3 mysteries which were solved by using Darwin's theory of evolution. The understanding we have gained is having a dramatic impact on food security, disease control, and environmental conservation. This material is based upon work supported by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute Science Education Program award to Emory University, award#52006923. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute or Emory University. For further information on each of the three discoveries, you can follow these links: WHY ARE FISH SHRINKING IN SIZE? Article about David O. Conover's research on fish size: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/conover_01 Scientific paper by David O. Conover and his team on fish size: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12098697 WHERE DID HIV COME FROM? Radio Lab segment on the pandemic of HIV and the discovery of its origins: http://www.radiolab.org/story/169885-aids/ Article on HIV's origins: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/news/081101_hivorigins Scientific paper on the 1959 blood sample with HIV: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v391/n6667/full/391594a0.html Scientific paper on the origins of HIV: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3234451/ WHY ARE GRASSLANDS TURNING INTO DESERTS? TED talk by Allan Savory: http://www.ted.com/speakers/allan_savory Paper on holistic management: http://www.savoryinstitute.com/media/40626/A-Global-Strategy-for-Addressing-Climate-Change-2-original-.pdf Rebuttal to criticisms of Allan's work: http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2014/aug/19/grazing-livestock-climate-change-george-monbiot-allan-savory?CMP=twt_gu To learn more about Stated Clearly, visit us at http://www.StatedClearly.com To learn more about Emory University's Center for Science Education, visit us at http://cse.emory.edu
Views: 274965 Stated Clearly
CARTA: DNA–Neandertal and Denisovan Genomes;Neandertal Genes in Humans;Neandertal Interbreeding
 
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(Visit: http://www.uctv.tv/) This symposium brings together researchers at the forefront of ancient DNA research and population genetics to discuss current developments and share insights about human migration and adaptation. Recorded on 04/29/2016. Series: "CARTA - Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny" [7/2016] [Science] [Show ID: 30971]
How the Turtle Got Its Shell
 
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Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: https://to.pbs.org/DonateEONS Where did turtles come from? And how did the they get their shells? The answers to these questions would eventually cause scientists to rethink the entire history of reptile evolution. Thanks as always to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart : http://spinops.blogspot.com/ Additionally, a big thank you to Tyler Lyson, Luke Norton, Andrey Atuchin, and Gaberiel Bever for their images of Eunotosaurus. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - https://twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: https://books.google.com/books?id=foxPAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA538 https://books.google.com/books?id=AR3BDA3QJNUC&pg=PA8 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227840230_Development_of_the_turtle_carapace_Implications_for_the_evolution_of_a_novel_bauplan http://www.mrfdigs.com/publications/2009_lyson-gilbert-loggerheads.pdf http://www.jstor.org/stable/221677 https://www.nature.com/articles/nature07533 https://www.nature.com/articles/456450a http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/276/1656/507 https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn14892-fossil-reveals-how-the-turtle-got-its-shell/ http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2009/07/09/how-the-turtle-got-its-shell-through-skeletal-shifts-and-muscular-origami/ http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jeb.12268/abstract https://www.nature.com/articles/nature14472 https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/06/24/416657576/how-the-turtle-got-its-shell http://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(16)30478-X https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2016/07/the-turtle-shell-first-evolved-for-digging-not-defence/491087/ https://academic.oup.com/jmammal/article-abstract/51/2/288/832941?redirectedFrom=fulltext http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/395600 https://books.google.com/books?id=8rXIDQAAQBAJ&pg=PA43 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024408297900807 https://www.jstor.org/stable/3883561
Views: 1006949 PBS Eons
Taxonomy: Life's Filing System - Crash Course Biology #19
 
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Hank tells us the background story and explains the importance of the science of classifying living things, also known as taxonomy. Crash Course Biology is now available on DVD! http://dft.ba/-8css Like CrashCourse on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Follow CrashCourse on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse References for this episode can be found in the Google document here: http://dft.ba/-2L2C Table of Contents 1) Taxonomy 0:00 2) Phylogenetic Tree 1:24 3) Biolography 2:26 4) Analogous/Homoplasic Traits 3:48 5) Homologous Traits 4:03 6) Taxa & Binomial Nomenclature 4:56 7) Domains 5:48 a) Bateria 6:04 b) Archaea 6:44 c) Eukarya / 4 Kingdoms 6:54 -Plantae 7:56 -Protista 8:23 -Fungi 8:56 -Animalia 9:31 taxonomy, classification, classifying, evolution, filing, science, biology, life, organism, relationship, ancestor, ancestry, evolutionary tree, phylogenetic tree, tree of life, biolography, carl von linnaeus, linnaeus, botanist, botanical name, morphology, homologous traits, systema naturae, taxa, groups, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species, binomial nomenclature, latin, domain, archaea, eukarya, division, autotrophs, heterotrophs, protist, fungi, animalia, animal, cat, kitty Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 1686714 CrashCourse
Unraveling the Evolution of Multicellularity
 
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A fun description of the article published by Sebe-Pedros et al. 2016. Dev Cell The Dynamic Regulatory Genome of Capsaspora and the Origin of Animal Multicellularity https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4877666/
Views: 1000 YourekaScience
Comparative Anatomy: What Makes Us Animals - Crash Course Biology #21
 
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Hank introduces us to comparative anatomy, which studies the similarities and differences in animal anatomy to support the theory of evolution and the shared ancestry of living things. Crash Course Biology is now available on DVD! http://dft.ba/-8css Like Crash Course on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Follow Crash Course on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse References: Campbell Biology, 9th ed. CliffsAP Biology, 3rd ed. Thomas Henry Huxley: http://www.strangescience.net/huxley.htm Tissues: http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/14-anatomy.htm Divergence time estimates for the early history of animal phyla... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1689654/ Table of Contents: 1) Comparative Anatomy 0:00 2) Locomotion 1:19 3) Heterotophy 1:41 4) Convergent Evolution 2:40 5) Biolography 3:40 6) Tissues 6:00 a) Epithelial Tissue 6:11 b) Connective Tissue 6:33 c) Muscle Tissue 7:01 d) Nerve Tissue 7:14 7) Organs 7:32 8) Organ Systems 7:39 crashcourse, crash course, biology, comparative anatomy, evolution, ancestry, animal, kingdom, locomotion, organism, heterotroph, heterotrophy, convergent evolution, vertebrate, environment, thomas henry huxley, paleontology, agnostic, dinosaurs, charles darwin, prehistoric, fossil, tissue, epithelial tissue, connective tissue, nerve tissue, muscle tissue, organ Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 486891 CrashCourse
What Was the Ancestor of Everything? (feat. PBS Space Time and It’s Okay To Be Smart)
 
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Check out It’s Okay To Be Smart’s video for more about the origins of life on earth: https://youtu.be/_uAJY1mqtw4 And check out PBS Space Time’s video on the physics of life: https://youtu.be/GcfLZSL7YGw Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: https://to.pbs.org/DonateEONS The search for our origins go back to a single common ancestor -- one that remains shrouded in mystery. It’s the ancestor of everything we know and today scientists call it the last universal common ancestor, or LUCA. Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios http://youtube.com/itsokaytobesmart https://www.youtube.com/pbsspacetime Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - https://twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: https://www.nature.com/articles/nmicrobiol2016116 https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/26/science/last-universal-ancestor.html https://astrobiology.nasa.gov/news/looking-for-luca-the-last-universal-common-ancestor/ http://microbialcell.com/researcharticles/physiology-phylogeny-and-luca/ http://www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/poolepaper.html http://we.vub.ac.be/~dglg/Web/Teaching/Les/Discussions/Pre-biotic/Moreira-LUCA.pdf http://www.mdpi.com/2075-1729/7/2/27/htm https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11084-017-9542-5 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4008548/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4176008/ https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/international-journal-of-astrobiology/article/buds-of-the-tree-the-highway-to-the-last-universal-common-ancestor/ED26AA7787BA5A152090913CC7C20067 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15035042 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21740227 https://biologydirect.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1745-6150-8-32 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0923250805002676 https://www.saylor.org/content/BIO_Kimball/users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/G/GenomeSizes.html
Views: 783848 PBS Eons
HSC Biology - Evidence for Evolution
 
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In this HSC Biology video, we go through different pieces of evidence for evolution. This includes palaeontology, biogeography, comparative embryology, comparative anatomy and biochemistry. To watch more videos, head to our website at https://getatomi.com Subscribe to our channel for more FREE videos: http://youtube.com/user/HscHubVid Like us on Facebook for handy study tips and blog articles on how to smash your HSC: https://www.facebook.com/Hschub Follow Atomi on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/get.atomi Follow Atomi news on Twitter: https://twitter.com/atomihq
Views: 5771 Atomi
Homosexuality: It's about survival - not sex | James O'Keefe | TEDxTallaght
 
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This passionate talk from Dr. James O'Keefe MD gives us a deeply personal and fascinating insight into why homosexuality is indeed a necessary and extraordinarily useful cog in nature's wheel of perfection. James H O'Keefe MD, is a Board Certified Cardiologist and Director of both the Charles & Barbara Duboc Cardio Health & Wellness Center and the Preventive Cardiology service at Saint Luke’s Mid America Heart Institute. He is also Professor of Medicine at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. His postgraduate training included a cardiology fellowship at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. Dr O’Keefe is board-certified in Cardiology, Internal Medicine, Nuclear Cardiology, and Cardiac CT Imaging. He is consistently ranked among the ‘Top Doctor’ lists regionally and nationally as one of America’s Top Rated Physicians in Cardiology. He has been named as one of USA Today’s Most Influential Doctors. Dr O’Keefe has contributed more than 300 articles to the medical literature and has authored best-selling cardiovascular books for health professionals including: The Complete Guide to ECGs (which is used for Cardiology Board Certification), Dyslipidemia Essentials, and Diabetes Essential. This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at http://ted.com/tedx
Views: 2160146 TEDx Talks
The Chain of Life
 
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Signup for your FREE trial to The Great Courses Plus here: http://ow.ly/crsQ30beNOZ You are the living ancestor of an unbroken chain of lives stretching from you, through your mother and your grandmother all the way back through the complete history of life on planet Earth to the very first life forms that appeared around four billion years ago. You can buy this poster here: https://www.redbubble.com/people/dominicwalliman/works/28504585-the-chain-of-life-your-evolutionary-history?asc=u&p=poster&rel=carousel Get all my other posters here: https://www.redbubble.com/people/dominicwalliman And free downloadable versions of this and the other posters here. If you want to print them out for educational purposes please do! https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/ More info and links: Times humans nearly became extinct https://io9.gizmodo.com/close-calls-three-times-when-the-human-race-barely-esc-1730998797 Bottlenecks of human population https://academic.oup.com/mbe/article/17/1/2/975516/Population-Bottlenecks-and-Pleistocene-Human Animal Ancestors illustration https://ntamura.deviantart.com/art/Evolution-project-178230251 Timeline of the evolutionary history of life on Earthh https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_the_evolutionary_history_of_life#cite_note-NAT-20170301-15 Early sponge http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/03/oldest-known-sponge-pushes-back-date-key-split-animal-evolution List of phylogeny of human ancestors https://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/27992/largest-direct-ancestor-of-humans Acorn worm genes shared with humans http://www.scienceworldreport.com/articles/33346/20151119/evolution-worms-70-percent-human-genes-trace-ancestry-acorn-worm.htm Thanks so much to my supporters on Patreon. If you enjoy my videos and would like to help me make more this is the best way and I appreciate it very much. https://www.patreon.com/domainofscience The Great Courses Plus is currently available to watch through a web browser to almost anyone in the world and optimized for the US market. The Great Courses Plus is currently working to both optimize the product globally and accept credit card payments globally. I also write a series of children’s science books call Professor Astro Cat, these links are to the publisher, but they are available in all good bookshops around the world in 18 languages and counting: Frontiers of Space (age 7+): http://nobrow.net/shop/professor-astro-cats-frontiers-of-space/ Atomic Adventure (age 7+): http://nobrow.net/shop/professor-astro-cats-atomic-adventure/ Intergalactic Activity Book (age 7+): http://nobrow.net/shop/professor-astro-cats-intergalactic-activity-book/ Solar System Book (age 3+, available in UK now, and rest of world in spring 2018): http://nobrow.net/shop/professor-astro-cats-solar-system/? Solar System App: http://www.minilabstudios.com/apps/professor-astro-cats-solar-system/ And the new Professor Astro Cat App: https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/galactic-genius-with-astro-cat/id1212841840?mt=8 Find me on twitter, Instagram, and my website: http://dominicwalliman.com https://twitter.com/DominicWalliman https://www.instagram.com/dominicwalliman https://www.facebook.com/dominicwalliman
Views: 54793 Domain of Science
The Science of Being Transgender ft. Gigi Gorgeous
 
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What can science teach us about gender identity and dysphoria? Thanks so much to Gigi Gorgeous! https://youtu.be/83jGTVHGj1Y Check out our new PODCAST: http://sidenotepodcast.com Subscribe for more! http://bit.ly/asapsci The Trevor Project's 24/7/365 Lifeline at 866-4-U-TREVOR (866-488-7386) or https://www.thetrevorproject.org The National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800-273-TALK (8255) Trans Lifeline at 877-565-8860 Created by: Mitchell Moffit and Gregory Brown Written by: Jodre Datu, Greg Brown and Mitch Moffit Illustrated by: Max Simmons Edited by: Sel Ghebrehiwot Narrated by: Mitch Moffit FOLLOW US! Instagram and Twitter: @whalewatchmeplz and @mitchellmoffit Clickable: http://bit.ly/16F1jeC and http://bit.ly/15J7ube AsapINSTAGRAM: https://instagram.com/asapscience/ Facebook: http://facebook.com/AsapSCIENCE Twitter: http://twitter.com/AsapSCIENCE Tumblr: http://asapscience.tumblr.com Created by Mitchell Moffit (twitter @mitchellmoffit) and Gregory Brown (twitter @whalewatchmeplz). Send us stuff! ASAPSCIENCE INC. P.O. Box 93, Toronto P Toronto, ON, M5S2S6 Further Reading/References https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9967/ http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/xx-male-syndrome-0 https://academic.oup.com/endo/article/142/8/3281/2988779 http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/males-and-females-differ-in-specific-brain-structures https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3896179/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4350266/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21334362 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4350266/ https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/917990-overview#a4 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7477289 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22941717 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4037295/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10983252 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17765230 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23398495 https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/AFSP-Williams-Suicide-Report-Final.pdf https://globalnews.ca/news/3648571/transgender-gene-study/ http://www.apa.org/topics/lgbt/transgender.aspx http://www.bu.edu/research/articles/lgbt-issues-stem-diversity/ https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn26511-out-in-the-open-is-science-lgbt-friendly/ https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2018/01/remembering-the-transgender-scientist-who-changed-our-understanding-of-the-brain/549458/ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-lgbt-biology/born-this-way-researchers-explore-the-science-of-gender-identity-idUSKBN1AJ0F0
Views: 961324 AsapSCIENCE
Plant evolutionary developmental biology | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant_evolutionary_developmental_biology 00:00:55 1 Historical perspective 00:01:05 1.1 Before 1900 00:03:02 1.2 1900 to the present 00:06:47 2 Organisms, databases and tools 00:11:11 3 Evolution of plant morphology 00:11:21 3.1 Overview of plant evolution 00:13:12 3.2 Meristems 00:14:53 3.3 Evolution of plant transcriptional regulation 00:15:32 3.4 Evolution of leaves 00:15:42 3.4.1 Origins of the leaf 00:18:01 3.4.2 Factors influencing leaf architectures 00:19:19 3.4.3 Genetic evidences for leaf evolution 00:24:28 3.5 Evolution of flowers 00:25:46 3.5.1 Origins of the flower 00:27:48 3.5.2 Evolution of the MADS-box family 00:29:51 3.5.3 Factors influencing floral diversity 00:32:49 3.5.4 Flowering time 00:34:50 3.5.5 Theories of flower evolution 00:36:21 3.6 Evolution of secondary metabolism 00:38:30 4 Mechanisms and players in evolution 00:42:46 5 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8741155355482488 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) is the study of developmental programs and patterns from an evolutionary perspective. It seeks to understand the various influences shaping the form and nature of life on the planet. Evo-devo arose as a separate branch of science rather recently. An early sign of this occurred in 1999.Most of the synthesis in evo-devo has been in the field of animal evolution, one reason being the presence of elegant model systems like Drosophila melanogaster, C. elegans, zebrafish and Xenopus laevis. However, since 1980, a wealth of information on plant morphology, coupled with modern molecular techniques has helped shed light on the conserved and unique developmental patterns in the plant kingdom also.
Views: 18 wikipedia tts
Evolution Beyond Earth
 
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While humanity’s past is firmly grounded on our home planet, the humans of the future may live on the moon, Mars, or interstellar ships bound for distant worlds. To prepare for this cosmic migration, today’s scientists are exploring how living in space affects the human body—right down to DNA—and whether we might tweak our own genome to enhance our ability to live beyond Earth. Come explore the biological future of humanity, as a new era of evolution beckons. PARTICIPANTS: Chris Mason, Caleb Scharf, Ting Wu MODERATOR: Stuart Firestein FIND OUT MORE ABOUT THE PROGRAM AND PARTICIPANTS: https://www.worldsciencefestival.com/programs/evolution-beyond-earth/ This program is part of the Big Ideas Series, made possible with support from the John Templeton Foundation. SUBSCRIBE to our YouTube Channel for all the latest from WSF VISIT our Website: http://www.worldsciencefestival.com/ LIKE us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/worldscience... FOLLOW us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/WorldSciFest TOPICS: Program Introduction 00:07 Introduction of Participants 01:34 Program Begins: Thinking about humans on other planets is hard and terrifying. 02:14 Should we make more gravity? 12:26 Engineering humans for life in space 23:01 Can we actually sustain life on Mars? 34:44 Q&A 45:42 This program was filmed live at the 2017 World Science Festival and edited for YouTube.
Views: 44450 World Science Festival
What Did the First Animal Look Like?
 
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If you trace your way back along the tree of life, eventually you'd come face-to-face with the very first animal. But what exactly would that animal have looked like? Hosted by: Stefan Chin SciShow has a spinoff podcast! It's called SciShow Tangents. Check it out at https://www.scishowtangents.org ---------- Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow ---------- Huge thanks go to the following Patreon supporters for helping us keep SciShow free for everyone forever: Bill & Katie Scholl, Adam Brainard, Greg, Alex Hackman, Andrew Finley Brenan, Sam Lutfi, D.A. Noe, الخليفي سلطان, Piya Shedden, KatieMarie Magnone, Scott Satovsky Jr, Charles Southerland, Patrick D. Ashmore, charles george, Kevin Bealer, Chris Peters ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Instagram: http://instagram.com/thescishow ---------- Sources: https://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/phylogenetics_01 https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/reading-a-phylogenetic-tree-the-meaning-of-41956 https://cnx.org/contents/[email protected]:[email protected]/Taxonomy-and-phylogeny https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20027787 https://www.quantamagazine.org/comb-jelly-neurons-spark-evolution-debate-20150325/ https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-017-0331-3 https://www.cell.com/trends/ecology-evolution/fulltext/S0169-5347(15)00062-2 https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wm-biology1/chapter/reading-darwin-and-descent-with-modification/ https://education.seattlepi.com/principle-parsimony-biology-3856.html https://ocean.si.edu/ocean-life/invertebrates/jellyfish-and-comb-jellies https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18322464 http://www.qm.qld.gov.au/Find+out+about/Animals+of+Queensland/Sea+Life/Sponges/Unique+features+of+sponges#.XFzwRc9Kg6V http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cnidaria/ctenophora.html https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2015/09/150911-blind-cavefish-animals-science-vision-evolution/ https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1871174X17300215 http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/1/6/e1500092 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29287988 https://academic.oup.com/bfg/article/15/5/333/1741867 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29287988 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4432959/
Views: 195656 SciShow
How Sex Became a Thing
 
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Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: https://to.pbs.org/DonateEONS We don’t know which living thing was the very first to arrive at the totally revolutionary process that is sexual reproduction but we can follow the history of how (and why) sex became a thing. Thanks to Studio 252mya for their illustrations. You can find more of their work here: https://252mya.com/licensing Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - https://twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/319/5870/1660.long https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4413262/#s4title https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/04/080401-first-sex.html https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/sexual-reproduction-and-the-evolution-of-sex-824 http://www.indiana.edu/~curtweb/Research/Red_Queen%20hyp.html http://cshperspectives.cshlp.org/content/6/3/a016154.full http://www.genetics.org/content/181/1/3.full https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/fossils-rewrite-history-of-sex/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19464181 https://www.britannica.com/science/Ediacara-fauna https://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/40333/title/The-Sex-Paradox/ https://www.britannica.com/science/reproduction-biology/Reproduction-of-organisms#ref607656 http://cshperspectives.cshlp.org/content/6/1/a016121.full https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4640172/ https://www.britannica.com/animal/Hydra-hydrozoan-genus https://www.britannica.com/science/algae/Reproduction-and-life-histories https://www.britannica.com/science/meiosis-cytology https://www.reuters.com/article/us-science-plant/fossils-from-1-6-billion-years-ago-may-be-oldest-known-plants-idUSKBN16L2GH
Views: 340411 PBS Eons
The Evolutionary History of Whales - Cetacean Evolution Part 1
 
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The millions of years that led to the modern-day assemblage of whale, dolphin, and porpoise species encapsulates a truly incredible period of mammalian evolution. In this video, we will be reviewing what is currently known about the evolutionary history of Cetacea, as well as examining the relationships this clade has to other, closely related mammals. Join our Discord server: https://discord.gg/3KgpG8J Music by Matt D Holloway: https://goo.gl/9wX4ht Subscribe to explore the wonderful life around you! Social Media: ►Twitter: https://twitter.com/BenGThomas42 ►Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/bengthomas42/ ►Instagram: http://bit.ly/1PIEagv ►Google+: http://bit.ly/1ObHejE Sources: https://www.montclair.edu/profilepages/media/5008/user/Gatesy_et_al._2012_A_phylogenetic_blueprint_for_a_modern_whale.pdf http://www.ivpp.cas.cn/cbw/gjzdwxb/xbwzxz/201504/P020150420393427001650.pdf https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.33.020602.095426 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution_of_cetaceans The Walking Whales - J.G.M Thewissen, 2014 The Evolution of Artiodactyls - Donald R. Prothero, Scott E. Foss (editors), 2007 https://www.nature.com/articles/nature06343 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raoellidae https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/48501/ID352.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/palaeofiles/whales/archaeoceti.htm https://wayback.archive-it.org/all/20120714043759/http://www.neomed.edu/DEPTS/ANAT/Thewissen/pdf/HT2.pdf https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC34678/ Steeman ME, Hebsgaard MB, Fordyce RE, Ho SYW, Rabosky DL, Nielsen R, Rahbek C, Glenner H, Sørensen MV, Willerslev E. Radiation of extant cetaceans driven by restructuring of the oceans. Systematic Biology. 2009 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2777972/ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236868053_When_Whales_Became_Mammals_The_Scientific_Journey_of_Cetaceans_From_Fish_to_Mammals_in_the_History_of_Science?enrichId=rgreq-2de7533b58d5227b90a1021f4516ff97-XXX&enrichSource=Y292ZXJQYWdlOzIzNjg2ODA1MztBUzoxMDQ2NTUwODIyMjk3NjJAMTQwMTk2MzEyNDQ5Mg%3D%3D&el=1_x_3&_esc=publicationCoverPdf (Romero 2012) https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?a=checkTaxonInfo&taxon_no=42919 https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev-earth-040809-152453#article-denial https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12052-009-0135-2 Gingerich PD, ul-Haq M, von Koenigswald W, Sanders WJ, Smith BH, Zalmout IS (2009) New Protocetid Whale from the Middle Eocene of Pakistan: Birth on Land, Precocial Development, and Sexual Dimorphism. PLoS ONE 4(2): e4366. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004366
Views: 93846 Ben G Thomas
Evolutionary biology | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Evolutionary biology Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor. These processes include natural selection, common descent, and speciation. The discipline emerged through what Julian Huxley called the modern synthesis (of the 1930s) of understanding from several previously unrelated fields of biological research, including genetics, ecology, biophysics, systematics, geobiology, and paleontology. Current research has widened to cover the genetic architecture of adaptation, molecular evolution, and the different forces that contribute to evolution including sexual selection, genetic drift and biogeography. The newer field of evolutionary developmental biology ("evo-devo") investigates how embryonic development is controlled, thus creating a wider synthesis that integrates developmental biology with the fields covered by the earlier evolutionary synthesis.
Views: 0 wikipedia tts
Part 2: How Does New Genetic Information Evolve? Gene Duplications
 
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Help fund us on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/statedclearly In our first animation of this series we learned how point mutations can edit genetic information. Here we see how duplication events can dramatically lengthen the genetic code of an individual. As point mutations add up in the duplicated region across generations, entirely new genes with new functions can evolve. In the video we see three examples of gene duplications resulting in new traits for the creatures who inherit them: the evolution of a venom gene in snakes, the evolution of leaf digestion genes in monkeys, and the evolution of burrowing legs in hunting dogs. Learn more on our website at http://statedclearly.com/ SCIENCE ADVISORS: Jianzhi "George" Zhang, PhD Joanna Masel, PhD Kini R Manjunatha, PhD Nicholas Casewell, PhD SPONSOR: This video was sponsored in part by Gene-Tools LLC, a company producing molecules used to study cancer and gene function. If your lab studies genetics, cancer, or developmental biology, make sure to check them out at http://www.gene-tools.com/ NOTES: ====================== How do new genes evolve? ====================== Read about the many different ways in which entirely new genes come into existence: http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/origins-of-new-genes-and-pseudogenes-835 ================================ Observed gene duplications In Bacteria ================================ Here, gene duplication was directly observed from generation to generation. After duplication, a new function was seen to evolve. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4392837/ ====================================== Observed or inferred gene duplications In mice ====================================== Here, genetically identical mice were allowed to breed for several generations and then gene number variations were compared in the final populations. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920193/ http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0012839 Here, gene number variations were compared among populations of wild mice. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4042557/ =========================== Factor X Snake venom evolution =========================== Factor X is what it’s called in the blood. Trocarin D is what it’s called in the venom gland. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1538-7836.2006.02266.x/abstract ========================== Snake venom is modified saliva ========================== The venom gland is derived from what are called “Dental Glands” which are found in reptiles and produce oral secretions like our saliva glands. In particular, the venom gland appears to be homologous to the Duvernoy's gland in non-venomous snakes. Little research has been done on the function of Duvernoy’s glands in non-venomous snakes but in most species, its secretions appear to be used as lubrication to aid in swallowing. Enzymes are also produced that may aid in killing, paralyzing, and digesting prey but these functions appear to be limited in their power and are only found in certain species. http://people.whitman.edu/~jacksok/ZJLS.pdf http://www.public.wsu.edu/~kkardong/Web%20of%20KVK_06b/Publications/Evolution_venom_app82.pdf ============================ How do blood clots form? ============================ Read an overview of how the blood clotting cascade functions and may have evolved: http://www.millerandlevine.com/km/evol/DI/clot/Clotting.html Watch a cool 3D animation showing how Factor X interacts with other molecules and structures in the blood to form clots! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cy3a__OOa2M
Views: 103773 Stated Clearly
Your Place in the Primate Family Tree
 
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Our new sticker is available here: https://store.dftba.com/collections/eons And check out Tacos of Texas!: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLh_qdzak59m68-i4M441Rkr5j8c_mQ-en Purgatorius, a kind of mammal called a plesiadapiform, might’ve been one of your earliest ancestors. But how did we get from a mouse-sized creature that looked more like a squirrel than a monkey -- to you, a member of Homo sapiens? Thanks to Ceri Thomas for the Purgatorius reconstruction. Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at http://alphynix.tumblr.com and http://nixillustration.com And thanks as always to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: http://spinops.blogspot.com/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible: Katie Fichtner, Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Anthony Callaghan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Anel Salas, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao. Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan If you'd like to support the channel, head over to http://patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards! Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/eonsshow Twitter - https://twitter.com/eonsshow Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/eonsshow/ References: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/clad/clad1.html https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/the-molecular-clock-and-estimating-species-divergence-41971 https://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/overview-of-hominin-evolution-89010983 https://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/hominoid-origins-135874580 https://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/phylogenetics_08 https://www.amnh.org/explore/news-blogs/news-posts/darwin-s-evolutionary-trees http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/genetics http://users.tamuk.edu/kfjab02/Biology/Mammalogy/systematics/A5primates.htm https://askananthropologist.asu.edu/stories/our-primate-heritage https://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/characteristics-of-crown-primates-105284416 http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/black_spider_monkey https://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/primate-origins-and-the-plesiadapiforms-106236783 http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Hominidae/ https://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/hominin-taxonomy-and-phylogeny-what-s-in-142102877 http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2012/08/generation-gaps-suggest-ancient-human-ape-split https://www.eva.mpg.de/3chimps/files/apes.htm https://www.nature.com/news/dna-mutation-clock-proves-tough-to-set-1.17079#/b2 http://www.pnas.org/content/112/5/1487 Collard, M., & Wood, B. (2013). Defining the genus Homo. Handbook of Paleoanthropology: Vol I: Principles, Methods and Approaches Vol II: Primate Evolution and Human Origins Vol III: Phylogeny of Hominids, 1-31. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12644563 http://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0020813.html https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29109469 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29342307 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajpa.1330400309 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4964406 https://www.nature.com/articles/nature10842 https://academic.oup.com/mbe/article-abstract/20/10/1620/1164065 http://science.sciencemag.org/content/349/6251/931 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28429568 https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-earth-063016-015637 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/evan.20177 http://science.sciencemag.org/content/347/6228/1352 https://www.nature.com/articles/nature09094
Views: 271078 PBS Eons
Why Whales Became the Biggest Animal of All Time
 
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Today’s whales can grow up to a whopping 98 ft in length! But did you know that just a few million years ago they only grew to about 32 ft? Have whales been eating loads of spinach all these years, or did something shift over time that made them grow into the massive sea beasts they are today? In fact, when whales first came on the scene nearly 50 million years ago, they looked nothing like they do today. In fact, they didn’t even live underwater! And today, some whales still have remnants of what used to be a bone for a hind leg in their skeleton (it just doesn’t show outside the skin). Could you imagine if whales still sported legs like their early ancestors did? That would look pretty funny. Other videos you might like: 10 Extinct Animals That Shouldn't Be Brought Back https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DPF0zB1hDKY 10 Extinct Creatures That Could Have Ruined The World https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rNBTGhzKOo0 A Unique Creature on Earth That Can Never Be Killed https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o8893cgbUfg& TIMESTAMPS: What the “first whale” looked like 1:18 How it evolved 2:08 Why whales grew larger and larger 4:55 How far whales can travel 5:24 How big the blue whale is 5:45 Which land animal is a whales’ relative 6:42 How much bigger are whales going to get? 7:48 #whales #bluewhale #prehistoricanimals Preview photo credit: Pakicetus model - Took the picture at Museo di Storia Naturale di Calci - Pisa: By Ghedoghedo/Wikimedia, CC BY-SA 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=64705713 Animation is created by Bright Side. Music by Epidemic Sound https://www.epidemicsound.com/ SUMMARY: - Pakicetus was a 4-footed land mammal and is known as the “first whale.” It was about the size of a wolf and was a carnivore. These mammals lived on land by shallow waters known as the Tethys Sea. - Some scientists believe that Pakicetus was a land dweller who was forced to swim in the ocean due to lack of food on land or warm temperatures. As they spent more and more time in the water, the animal evolved into a creature that lived in the sea. - One of the first evolved animals to come from Pakicetus was a species known as Ambulocetus. It lived near estuaries somewhere between 50 to 48 million years ago. - Over a period of about 37 million years, Pakicetus gradually evolved into over 80 different species of whales. That’s why 27.5 million years ago, one of the first whales was significantly smaller than they are today. - Whales definitely didn’t start out as the titans of the sea they are today as their smaller size made them easy prey for predators like hungry sharks. - To say whales were well fed at this time was an understatement! Whales everywhere filled their tummies with scrumptious krill, and they grew larger and larger. - Whales are consistently the biggest animal on our planet these days. The blue whale, for example, weighs more than a Boeing 757 — passengers and bags of peanuts not included. And their belly buttons are the size of a dinner plate! - While science has proven that whales have evolved from Pakicetus, they have another possible relative that still lives on Earth with us today: hippos! - Many scientists believe that whales have hit their capacity for growth once they measure 109 ft. That’s because at 110 ft, a whale can’t physically close their mouth within 10 seconds before its prey escapes. If it took any longer, they wouldn’t be able to eat, which would lead to their death. Subscribe to Bright Side : https://goo.gl/rQTJZz ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Our Social Media: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/brightside/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/brightgram/ 5-Minute Crafts Youtube: https://www.goo.gl/8JVmuC Photos: https://www.depositphotos.com East News ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- For more videos and articles visit: http://www.brightside.me/
Views: 175869 BRIGHT SIDE
Complex Animals: Annelids & Arthropods - CrashCourse Biology #23
 
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Hank continues our exploration of animal phyla with the more complexly organized annelida and arthropoda, and a biolography on insects. Crash Course Biology is now available on DVD! http://dft.ba/-8css Like CrashCourse on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Follow CrashCourse on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse References: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/07/100726222316.htm http://tlc.howstuffworks.com/home/earthworm-appreciation-day.htm http://annelidsf.blogspot.com/ http://www.bukisa.com/articles/41743_amazing-facts-about-arthropods#ixzz1sXW1Jigp http://www.ehow.com/about_6292974_interesting-crustaceans.html crashcourse, crash course, biology, complex animals, annelid, arthropod, segmentation, evolution, diversity, chordate, vertebrate, ancestor, earthworm, beetle, anatomy, synapomorphy, chaetae, shared traits, trait, plesiomorphy, worm, leech, phyla, class, insect, scorpion, butterfly, lobster, thorax, exoskeleton, chitin, jointed feet, cheliceriformes, arachnid, myriapoda, biolography, pollination, flowering plants, flight, metamorphosis, nymph, pupae, crustacea, shrimp, crab Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 474764 CrashCourse
Evolution 101
 
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Every creature that’s ever lived, including you, has been honed by the powerful force of evolution. Play NOVA's Evolution Lab to learn how it’s responsible for the explosion of Earth's biodiversity. Play the Evolution Lab: http://www.pbs.org/nova/labs/lab/evolution/ Find discussion questions for this video and other resources in the Evolution Lab collection on PBS LearningMedia: http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/nvev-sci-evolution101/nova-evolution-lab-evolution-101/ NOVA Labs Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/theNOVALabs NOVA Labs Twitter: https://twitter.com/theNOVALabs Credits: Ari Daniel, Writer/Narrator/Producer Greg Kestin, Assistant Producer and Animator Tilapia Film, Animation APM Music, Music Additional imagery: • Certain video clips are screen grabs from NOVA’s Evolution Lab • Extinction: Archaeopteryx photo - iStock • Beauty: mushroom (flickr, user: surreydweller); gecko (flickr, user: Photo Grrrrr); Norfolk Island pine (flickr, user: thinboyfatter), rosefinch (flickr, user: Sergey Pisarevskiy) • Adaptation: Flying squirrel (Caters News Agency) • Stick insect (CC 3.0), Scarlet kingsnake (flickr, user: MyFWCmedia), goldfish (flickr, user: úlfhams_víkingur) • Dinosaur: T. rex (iStock) • Snakes: Shutterstock; flickr, user: Tambako the Jaguar; flickr, user: 0ystercatcher • Neanderthal: flickr, user: NSSMphotos
Views: 42343 NOVA PBS Official
Creation/Evolution: Natural Limits to Biological Change 2/2 - Dr. Raymond G. Bohlin
 
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Our featured speaker on Creation Weekend (Sept 10, 2010) was Dr. Raymond G. Bohlin, a well-known speaker and author, who is President of Probe Ministries. Dr. Bohlin was born and raised in Chicago, IL and is a graduate of the University of Illinois (B.S., zoology, 1971-1975), the University of North Texas (M.S., population genetics, 1977-1980), and the University of Texas at Dallas (M.S., Ph.D., molecular and cell biology, 1984-1991). Dr. Bohlin has many articles and publications, ranging from molecular biology to Christian apologetics, such as stem cell research and the ethics of human cloning. His 1991 PhD. thesis was titled: "Complementation of a Defect in Complex I of the Electron Transport Chain by DNA-mediated Gene Transfer." He has as lectured and debated on dozens of college and university campuses, where he has addressed issues in the creation/evolution debate as well as other science-related issues such as the environment, genetic engineering, medical ethics, and sexually transmitted diseases. His September topic will be "Natural Limits to Biological Change". Dr. Bohlin and his wife Sue, an associate speaker and Webmistress for Probe Ministries as well as a professional calligrapher and Christian speaker, live in Plano, Texas, a suburb of Dallas, and they have two grown sons. Dr. Bohlin has been with Probe Ministries since 1975 and he and Sue frequently appear on Probe radio broadcasts addressing issues of the day. Probe ministries (http://www.probe.org) is a Christian worldview and apologetics ministry offering resources to help people think biblically about a wide range of topics. Probe's mission is to present the Gospel to communities by providing life-long opportunities to integrate faith and learning through balanced, biblically based scholarship. His recent book on Darwin's racism will be available at the meeting. (http://www.probe.org/site/c.fdKEIMNsEoG/b.5397521/k.F18F/Was_Darwin_a_Racist.htm) Please visit the Rocky Mountain Creation Fellowship (RMCF) website at http://www.YoungEarth.org for more video, audio, information on upcoming speakers, and how you can join and support RMCF.
Views: 860 CreationSensation
Quantum Biology - Johnjoe McFadden
 
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Professor Johnjoe McFadden's Presentation "Does Biology Need Quantum Mechanics?" at Imperial College London's Festival of Science 2014 Johnjoe McFadden obtained his PhD at Imperial College London, then went on to work on human genetic diseases and infectious diseases at the University of Surrey. He has more recently specialised in examining the genetics of microbes such as the agents of tuberculosis and meningitis. Professor McFadden has published more than 100 articles in scientific journals on subjects as wide-ranging as bacterial genetics, tuberculosis, idiopathic diseases and computer modelling of evolution. As well as contributing articles on a broad range of scientific topics to the Guardian newspaper, Johnjoe is the author of the highly regarded book Quantum Evolution. In this book he proposes a new model for the fundamental mechanisms of evolution, while presenting quantum mechanics in such a way as to be accessible to those without a background in Physics or Chemistry.
Views: 5530 CDTFestivalofScience
Biological evolution | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution 00:03:04 1 History of evolutionary thought 00:03:14 1.1 Classical times 00:03:44 1.2 Medieval 00:04:29 1.3 Pre-Darwinian 00:07:03 1.4 Darwinian revolution 00:08:50 1.5 Pangenesis and heredity 00:10:33 1.6 The 'modern synthesis' 00:11:57 1.7 Further syntheses 00:12:52 2 Heredity 00:16:40 3 Variation 00:18:30 3.1 Mutation 00:20:38 3.2 Sex and recombination 00:22:16 3.3 Gene flow 00:24:01 4 Mechanisms 00:24:33 4.1 Natural selection 00:30:44 4.2 Biased mutation 00:33:10 4.3 Genetic drift 00:35:34 4.4 Genetic hitchhiking 00:36:46 4.5 Gene flow 00:38:12 5 Outcomes 00:41:19 5.1 Adaptation 00:46:25 5.2 Coevolution 00:47:23 5.3 Cooperation 00:49:14 5.4 Speciation 00:56:08 5.5 Extinction 00:58:19 6 Evolutionary history of life 00:58:30 6.1 Origin of life 01:00:27 6.2 Common descent 01:02:51 6.3 Evolution of life 01:05:34 7 Applications 01:08:15 8 Social and cultural responses Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9592243989795839 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. These characteristics are the expressions of genes that are passed on from parent to offspring during reproduction. Different characteristics tend to exist within any given population as a result of mutation, genetic recombination and other sources of genetic variation. Evolution occurs when evolutionary processes such as natural selection (including sexual selection) and genetic drift act on this variation, resulting in certain characteristics becoming more common or rare within a population. It is this process of evolution that has given rise to biodiversity at every level of biological organisation, including the levels of species, individual organisms and molecules.The scientific theory of evolution by natural selection was proposed by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in the mid-19th century and was set out in detail in Darwin's book On the Origin of Species (1859). Evolution by natural selection was first demonstrated by the observation that more offspring are often produced than can possibly survive. This is followed by three observable facts about living organisms: 1) traits vary among individuals with respect to their morphology, physiology and behaviour (phenotypic variation), 2) different traits confer different rates of survival and reproduction (differential fitness) and 3) traits can be passed from generation to generation (heritability of fitness). Thus, in successive generations members of a population are more likely to be replaced by the progenies of parents with favourable characteristics that have enabled them to survive and reproduce in their respective environments. In the early 20th century, other competing ideas of evolution such as mutationism and orthogenesis were refuted as the modern synthesis reconciled Darwinian evolution with classical genetics, which established adaptive evolution as being caused by natural selection acting on Mendelian genetic variation.All life on Earth shares a last universal common ancestor (LUCA) that lived approximately 3.5–3.8 billion years ago. The fossil record includes a progression from early biogenic graphite, to microbial mat fossils, to fossilised multicellular organisms. Existing patterns of biodiversity have been shaped by repeated formations of new species (speciation), changes within species (anagenesis) and loss of species (extinction) throughout the evolutionary history of life on Earth. Morphological and biochemical traits are more similar among species that share a more recent common ancestor, and can be used to reconstruct phylogenetic trees.Evolutionary biologists have continued to study various aspects of evolution by forming and testing hypotheses as well as constructing theories based on evidence from the field or laboratory a ...
Views: 3 wikipedia tts
A Biopsychological Compromise
 
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Intro Sample: "Hexagon Kingdoms" by PhaseOne Links, Citations & Interesting Further Reading: Boom-bust Phases in Asset Prices & Fiscal Policy Behavior: https://www.jstor.org/stable/27750577?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents 2019 Norwegian Study on the Philosophy of Biology & Bias: https://elifesciences.org/articles/44929 Sociological Spiral of Silence: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1424489615000211 Morality & Evolutionary Biology: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/morality-biology/ Political Orientations Are Correlated with Brain Structure in Young Adults: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3092984/ The Biology of Ethics: https://journalofethics.ama-assn.org/article/biology-ethics-genetics-evolution-and-moral-behavior/2000-07 Interesting Lecture by Segev BenZvi from University of Rochester on Physics & Origin of Bias: https://www.pas.rochester.edu/~sybenzvi/courses/phy403/2015s/p403_22_meas_bias.pdf --- If You Wish to Support this Channel: Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Coterie1 Bitcoin: bc1q2exywcn64k3gwr5zn53ncdpmz49s7rqls5742z Monero: 47qipkWiuXHAXTLjejf5u7WUFfpKEGoqPQtw5mGTsa6DZpkZiwhW3zL89tyxtzhQJnGe8xi2tiNn8PMayXERHXcwD2L9RqW
Views: 1916 Coterie
Karl Priest: LIFE SCIENCE PRIZE--BIOLOGY ELIMINATES EVOLUTION
 
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FOLLOWING ARE FACTS EVOLUTIONISTS DON'T WANT PEOPLE TO KNOW. For years, the claim has been made that "evolution is an inverted-fantasy religion taught in the public schools in violation of the First Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America." (Dr. Joseph Mastropaolo) The Debate Dodgers (see below) unanimously have failed to defend in court against that claim. Therefore, the default-judgment applies to all evolutionists in general and particularly those on the Debate Dodgers List. This is proof positive that evolution is an inverted-fantasy religion taught in the public schools in violation of the First Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America. Evidently, evolution is devoid of scientific evidence. As an acid test of that finding, the most outspoken evolutionists worldwide bar none were challenged to contend for the Life Science Prize. The rules and results follow. These data confirm the scientific peer reviewed articles of objective, valid, reliable, and calibrated evidence that "evolution exists nowhere in the universe, never has, never will, except as an inverted fantasy based on vitalism superstitions 2,500 years old." (Dr. Joseph Mastropaolo) Rules and FAQ's for the Life Science Prize: http://www.insectman.us/evolution-is-a-lie/debate-dodger-list.htm "Evolution is more impossible than the Tooth Fairy, Santa Claus, and the Headless Horseman." (Dr. Joseph Mastropaolo) "Of the simplest machines, a toothpick has no moving parts. Of the most complex of machines, a protein has the highest of manufacturing requirements. Given every tree on the planet and infinite time, evolution could never make a toothpick. Even incompetent engineers know that." "1. Evolution was invented by Anaximander 2,500 years ago as an extension of the Gaea, Mother Earth, religion. "2. The entire universe, viable and nonviable alike, has always devolved, the exact opposite and excluder of evolved. "3. Every event in this universe is a devolutional event because some of the converted energy is lost to future events." (Dr. Joseph Mastropaolo) "Biology eliminates evolution. Without totalitarian censorship and persecution, evolution would not last a month." (Joseph Mastropaolo" http://www.insectman.us/evolution-is-a-lie/index.htm ---------------------------- EVOLUTION IS A LIE: http://www.insectman.us/evolution-is-a-lie/index.htm I had to block comments on all of my videos because God-hating cowards would post anonymous, and often profane, tripe and vote my comments down.
Views: 219 Karl Priest
Retroengineering biology and predicting fossils: evolution goes experimental
 
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Think evolution is just passive observation, and the history of life is off limits? In today's Evolution Hour 25, catch up to paleogenomics and modern paleontology, busily RETROENGINEERING ancestral biology and fossil forms. The field is constantly expanding, and here are some open access works to catch you up to speed on the field: Eric Gaucher 2007 http://www.ffame.org/pubs/Experimental%20resurrection%20of%20ancient%20biomolecules%3A%20gene%20synthesis%2C%20heterologous%20protein%20expression%2C%20and%20functional%20assays.pdf explains the basic principles at the molecular end Conor Howard et al. 2014 “Ancestral resurrection reveals evolutionary mechanisms of kinase plasticity.” https://elifesciences.org/articles/04126 ferrets out the ancestral functioning of biology by direct reconstruction Enni Harjunmaa et al. 2014 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264391591_Replaying_evolutionary_transitions_from_the_dental_fossil_record found the biology keys underlying over 100 million years of mammal tooth evolution, including now extinct forms seen in the fossil record Bhart-Anjan Bhullar et al. 2015 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276209384_A_molecular_mechanism_for_the_origin_of_a_key_evolutionary_innovation_the_bird_beak_and_palate_revealed_by_an_integrative_approach_to_major_transitions_in_vertebrate_history pulled back the modern bird beak genetically to reveal the ancestral dinosaurian bone structure from which their bird descendants originated Paleontologists also have a dandy track record on predicting fossils (and how can they manage that trick unless evolution happens to be true?) ... I cover lots of examples in my own book (shameless plug) https://www.amazon.com/dp/1540736296/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&qid=1481509663&sr=8-2&keywords=Evolution+slam+dunk not only on the reptile-mammal transition, but ancestral ant fossils, bird transitionals, and those fish with legs deep in the origin of land vertebrates. The "Fossil Genie" must really like evolutionists to be so obliging in making fossils to fit their predictions! Everybody can go to my #TIP "Troubles in Paradise: The Methodology of Creationism" website at www.tortucan.wordpress.com for further resources and links. And if you feel really motivated by what you see there and want to help further, toss some spare cash at www.GoFundMe.com/dseego to help keep the #TIP work going, combating creationism one source at a time, no turning back now!
Views: 167 James Downard
Mutations: The Potential Power of a Small Change
 
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The Amoeba Sisters discuss gene and chromosome mutations and explore the significance of these changes. Music used with permission from Adrian Holovaty (http://www.youtube.com/adrianholovaty). This video has a handout here: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html We appreciate the feedback we get for clarification or improvements on our videos. At 2:11, we try make the A (adenine) base look upset now that the complementary base T (thymine) has been replaced with a G (guanine) in a point mutation. But we wish we had put more distance between the cartoon bases to clarify, that now, they cannot bond in this way. Note: This can sometimes be fixed by a polymerase in proofreading- but if not fixed- the G may be be matched with a C and the mutation will remain. You may enjoy our updated mutation GIF: https://twitter.com/AmoebaSisters/status/930472869343191041 Support us on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/amoebasisters Our FREE resources: GIFs: http://www.amoebasisters.com/gifs.html Handouts: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Comics: http://www.amoebasisters.com/parameciumparlorcomics Connect with us! Website: http://www.AmoebaSisters.com Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/AmoebaSisters Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AmoebaSisters Tumblr: http://www.amoebasisters.tumblr.com Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/AmoebaSister­s Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/amoebasistersofficial/ Visit our Redbubble store at http://www.amoebasisters.com/store.html The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching science at the high school level. Pinky's teacher certification is in grades 4-8 science and 8-12 composite science (encompassing biology, chemistry, and physics). Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach, and they focus on her specialty: secondary life science. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit: http://www.amoebasisters.com/about-us.html We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines https://www.youtube.com/yt/policyandsafety/communityguidelines.html and YouTube's policy center https://support.google.com/youtube/topic/2676378?hl=en&ref_topic=6151248. We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language. We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages. YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are thankful for those that contribute different languages. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.
Views: 989041 Amoeba Sisters
The Skeletal System: It's ALIVE! - CrashCourse Biology #30
 
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Hank introduces us to the framework of our bodies, our skeleton, which apart from being the support and protection for all our fleshy parts, is involved in many other vital processes that help our bodies to function properly. Crash Course Biology is now available on DVD! http://dft.ba/-8bCC Like CrashCourse: http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Follow CrashCourse: http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Table of Contents 1) Endoskeleton 2:03 2) Biolography 3:27 3) New Bone Formation 6:36 4) Bone Structure 8:00 5) Bone Remodeling 9:48 References: Campbell Biology, 9th ed. http://faculty.fmcc.suny.edu/mcdarby/animals&plantsbook/animals/07-Arthropods.htm http://www.cod.edu/people/faculty/fancher/Size.htm http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17308163 http://www.shwachmandiamondamerica.org/blood_and_Marrow.htm http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3001285/l http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andreas_Vesalius http://projectskeletal.tripod.com/Scientists.htm crash course, crashcourse, biology, skeleton, skeletal system, organ, anatomy, physiology, vertebrate, chordate, hydrostatic skeleton, exoskeleton, endoskeleton, bone, skull, biolography, adries van wesel, osteology, andreas vesalius, doctor, medicine, human dissection, de humani corporis fabrica, illustration, cartilage, chondrocyte, collagen, osteoblast, ossification, calcium phosphate, bone matrix, marrow, hematopoeisis, diaphysis, epiphysis, pituitary gland, growth hormone, remodeling, osteoclast, resorption, parathyroid, thyroid Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 766652 CrashCourse
Creation/Evolution: Natural Limits to Biological Change 1/2 - Dr. Raymond G. Bohlin
 
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Our featured speaker on Creation Weekend (Sept 10, 2010) was Dr. Raymond G. Bohlin, a well-known speaker and author, who is President of Probe Ministries. Dr. Bohlin was born and raised in Chicago, IL and is a graduate of the University of Illinois (B.S., zoology, 1971-1975), the University of North Texas (M.S., population genetics, 1977-1980), and the University of Texas at Dallas (M.S., Ph.D., molecular and cell biology, 1984-1991). Dr. Bohlin has many articles and publications, ranging from molecular biology to Christian apologetics, such as stem cell research and the ethics of human cloning. His 1991 PhD. thesis was titled: "Complementation of a Defect in Complex I of the Electron Transport Chain by DNA-mediated Gene Transfer." He has as lectured and debated on dozens of college and university campuses, where he has addressed issues in the creation/evolution debate as well as other science-related issues such as the environment, genetic engineering, medical ethics, and sexually transmitted diseases. His September topic will be "Natural Limits to Biological Change". Dr. Bohlin and his wife Sue, an associate speaker and Webmistress for Probe Ministries as well as a professional calligrapher and Christian speaker, live in Plano, Texas, a suburb of Dallas, and they have two grown sons. Dr. Bohlin has been with Probe Ministries since 1975 and he and Sue frequently appear on Probe radio broadcasts addressing issues of the day. Probe ministries (http://www.probe.org) is a Christian worldview and apologetics ministry offering resources to help people think biblically about a wide range of topics. Probe's mission is to present the Gospel to communities by providing life-long opportunities to integrate faith and learning through balanced, biblically based scholarship. His recent book on Darwin's racism will be available at the meeting. (http://www.probe.org/site/c.fdKEIMNsEoG/b.5397521/k.F18F/Was_Darwin_a_Racist.htm) Please visit the Rocky Mountain Creation Fellowship (RMCF) website at http://www.YoungEarth.org for more video, audio, information on upcoming speakers, and how you can join and support RMCF.
Views: 1522 CreationSensation
30 Facts You Never Knew about the Human Body
 
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30 incredible facts about the human body that will deeply impress you. We bet you’ve never heard about half of them! We tend to think that we know our bodies perfectly. We are aware of how they work and what kinds of processes occur in them every second. In fact, the human body is one complex and mysterious mechanism that sometimes confuses even the most qualified specialists — doctors and scientists. SUMMARY 1. A tongue print is absolutely unique. 2. A single hair can hold the weight of a hanging apple. 3. The number of bacteria in a person’s mouth is equal to the number of people living on Earth, or even more. 4. Nails that are soft and brittle, with no moon, could indicate an overactive thyroid. 5. The speed of an incoming brain impulse is about 400 km/h. 6. There are not just four different blood types as we used to think but in fact 29! 7. Over the course of just one day, our blood ’runs’ the distance of 11,9999 miles (or 19,312 kilometers). 8. Men also have glands that can produce milk, but its production represents an abnormality for the male body. 9. A human makes approximately 20,000 breaths per day. 10. Almost all people in the world have special mites on their eyelashes called Demodex. 11. A human eye can distinguish up to 10 million different colors. But our brain can’t remember all of them. 12. Our ears keep on growing throughout our lives with almost unbelievable speed — a quarter of a millimeter per year! 13. The heart beats 35 million times a year. 14. Every day, the human body loses about one million skin cells — that amounts to 4,5 lbs. (or 2 kilos) every year. 15. 1 square centimeter of your skin contains around a hundred pain sensors. 16. This might be very surprising to some, but 26% of men also experience PMS. 17. The average person consumes about 77,000 lbs. (or 35 tons) of food during his or her life. 18. A human spends about five years of their life blinking. Fortunately, we can do many other things simultaneously! 19. 100,000 chemical reactions occur every second in our brains. 20. Women cry average 30 to 64 times a year, and men cry just 6 to 17 times. 21. Smiling triggers 17 muscles of the face while crying activates 43. So smile more! 22. A man’s face preserves its youthful appearance a lot longer than a woman’s face does. 23. The total length of all the nerves in the human body is 46 miles (or 75 km). 24. Boys have fewer taste buds on the surface of their tongues than girls do. 25. All human beings in the world began their existence as females. X and Y chromosomes are responsible for determining an individual’s sex. 26. Men can discern far fewer shades of color than women can, and the reason for this is quite simple. Color perception is determined by retinal cone cells. 27. Women blink twice as much as men. Also, women’s hearts beat faster than men’s. 28. The speed of your sneeze is 100 miles per hour (or 140 km per hour). 29. A feeling of thirst occurs when water loss is equal to 1% of your body weight. The loss of more than 5% can cause fainting, and more than 10% cause death from dehydration. 30. The muscles which help your eyes to focus complete around 100,000 movements a day. #humanbody # Subscribe to Bright Side : https://goo.gl/rQTJZz For copyright matters please contact us at: [email protected] ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Our Social Media: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/brightside/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/brightgram/ 5-Minute Crafts Youtube: https://www.goo.gl/8JVmuC  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- For more videos and articles visit: http://www.brightside.me/
Views: 1682109 BRIGHT SIDE
Are We Really 99% Chimp?
 
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Get 10% off of your first order with Squarespace - http://squarespace.com/minuteearth Please support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth ... like these our Patreon patrons. Thanks! - Owner - Jeff Straathof - Mark - Maarten Bremer - Today I Found Out - Avi Yashchin - Valentin - Nicholas Buckendorf - @AntoineCoeur ___________________________________________ MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth’s environment – in just a few minutes! Created by Henry Reich With the MinuteEarth team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Script by: Ferris Jabr ________________________ Subscribe on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/minuteearth?sub_confirmation=1 And follow us on Vessel: https://www.vessel.com/shows/6891774506155638 And here we are on iTunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter: http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth ________________________ References: Boyko, Adam R. A Simple Genetic Architecture Underlies Morphological Variation in Dogs. PLOS Biology. Published: August 10, 2010 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000451 http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1000451 Cohen, Jon. Relative Differences: The Myth of 1%. Science 29 June 2007. Vol. 316 no. 5833 p. 1836 DOI: 10.1126/science.316.5833.1836 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/316/5833/1836.short Demuth, Jeffrey P. The Evolution of Mammalian Gene Families. PLOS ONE. December 20, 2006 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000085 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0000085 Mahler, Kimberly L. Sequence divergence of Mus spretus and Mus musculus across a skin cancer susceptibility locus. BMC Genomics. 2008; 9: 626. Published online 2008 Dec 23. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-626 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2628916/ The Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium. Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome. Nature 437, 69-87 (1 September 2005) | doi:10.1038/nature04072 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v437/n7055/full/nature04072.html#a25 Image Credits: Algerian mouse: Lien Dejager Chihuahua, St. Bernard and House Mouse: Courtesy Shutterstock
Views: 2001090 MinuteEarth
Icons of Evolution #2 - Special Edition Extras
 
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Science or Myth? Some of these icons of evolution present assumptions or hypotheses as though they were observed facts; in Stephen Jay Gould's words, they are "incarnations of concepts masquerading as neutral descriptions of nature." Others conceal raging controversies among biologists that have far-reaching implications for evolutionary theory. Worst of all, some are directly contrary to well-established scientific evidence. Most biologists are unaware of these problems. Indeed, most biologists work in fields far removed from evolutionary biology. Most of what they know about evolution, they learned from biology textbooks and the same magazine articles and television documentaries that are seen by the general public. But the textbooks and popular presentations rely primarily on the icons of evolution, so as far as many biologists are concerned the icons are the evidence for evolution. Some biologists are aware of difficulties with a particular icon because it distorts the evidence in their own field. When they read the scientific literature in their specialty, they can see that the icon is misleading or downright false. But they may feel that this is just an isolated problem, especially when they are assured that Darwin's theory is supported by overwhelming evidence from other fields. If they believe in the fundamental correctness of Darwinian evolution, they may set aside their misgivings about the particular icon they know something about. On the other hand, if they voice their misgivings they may find it difficult to gain a hearing among their colleagues, because (as we shall see) criticizing Darwinian evolution is extremely unpopular among English-speaking biologists. This may be why the problems with the icons of evolution are not more widely known. And this is why many biologists will be just as surprised as the general public to learn how serious and widespread those problems are. The following chapters compare the icons of evolution with published scientific evidence, and reveal that much of what we teach about evolution is wrong. This fact raises troubling questions about the status of Darwinian evolution. If the icons of evolution are supposed to be our best evidence for Darwin's theory, and all of them are false or misleading, what does that tell us about the theory? Is it science, or myth? What people are saying about Jonathan Wells and Icons of Evolution Wells is an iconoclast. He’s literally an icon smasher. – Dr. Richard Sternberg, evolutionary biologist, Biologic Institute When I first read Icons of Evolution, I thought this book is going to be a blockbuster. – Dr. Michael Behe, biochemist, Lehigh University I knew right from the start when Jonathan had this idea that this book would make a big difference. And it has made a big difference. – Dr. Paul Nelson, philosopher of biology, Discovery Institute Icons of Evolution opened people’s eyes up to just how many scientific flaws there are in textbooks regarding evolution. – Casey Luskin, MS earth science, public policy officer, Center for Science & Culture "The scientific leaders tell us that science is the search for the truth science cannot coexist with lies. We all assume that textbooks contain only a few misprints and minor factual errors. But, is that really so? The public should be aware of how textbooks throughout our education system misuse these icons and addressing the issue Wells has done a great public service. ... His arguments are easy for laymen to follow. However, the extensive coverage of all the icons of Darwinism in the diverse fields of Biology, with extensive research notes, makes this volume a valuable reference for a professional biologist. "Icons of Evolution" is a must-read for all who are interested in science, and especially in the arguments for and against Darwinism. – Paul Chien, Department of Biology, University of San Francisco Jonathan Wells has done us all, the scientific community, educators, and the wider public, a great service. In "Icons of Evolution" he has brilliantly exposed the exaggerated claims and deceptions that have persisted in standard textbook discussions of biological origins for many decades, in spite of contrary evidence. These claims have been so often repeated that they seem unassailable, that is, until one reads Wells's book. – Dean H. Kenyon, Professor of Biology, San Francisco State University (retired) "This is one of the most important books ever written about the evolution controversy. It shows how devotion to the ideology of Darwinism has led to textbooks which are full of misinformation." – Phillip E. Johnson, professor of law, UC Berkeley, author of "The Wedge of Truth" (retired)
Examples of Natural Selection
 
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002 - Natural Selection Examples Paul Andersen details examples of natural selection in the world. He starts by explaining how changes in global temperatures are causing plants to adapt. He explains how mutations cause changes in phenotype which give organisms varying levels of fitness. Two specific examples of natural selection; sickle cell disease and muti-drug resistant tuberculosis are also included. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: Alex1961. English: Erythronium Grandiflorum, (Glacier Lily or Avalanche Lily) (Glacier National Park, Logan Pass), February 3, 2008. http://www.flickr.com/photos/alex1961/333269991/. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Erythronium_grandiflorum_prairie.jpg. Allison, Anthony. English: Comparison of the Distribution of Malaria (left) and Sickle-cell Trait (right)., [object HTMLTableCellElement]. Original work by Anthony Allison. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Malaria_versus_sickle-cell_trait_distributions.png. Azcolvin429, Selection_Types_Chart png: Polski: Mechanizmy Ewolucji, January 7, 2011. Selection_Types_Chart.png. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Disruptive_selection_before.svg. Debivort. English: Various Coquina Shells. Individuals in the Mollusk Species Donax Variabilis Show Diverse Coloration and Patterning in Their Phenotypes., October 2006. Own work by Author. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Coquina_variation3.jpg. Esseh. Schematic of the Acquisition of Antibiotic Resistance., May 14, 2007. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Antibiotic_selection.JPG. "File:Anopheles Albimanus Mosquito.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Anopheles_albimanus_mosquito.jpg. "File:DNA Orbit Animated Static Thumb.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DNA_orbit_animated_static_thumb.png. "File:Russia TB Wiki.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Russia_TB_Wiki.jpg. "File:Saint Johns Wart Flowers.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Saint_johns_wart_flowers.jpg. "File:Sicklecells.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sicklecells.jpg. "File:Sperm-egg.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sperm-egg.jpg. "File:TB in Sputum.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:TB_in_sputum.png. "File:Tuberculosis-x-ray-1.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tuberculosis-x-ray-1.jpg. "File:Vaccinium Corymbosum(01).jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Vaccinium_corymbosum(01).jpg. "File:Walden Thoreau.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Walden_Thoreau.jpg. "Google Image Result for Http://www.neh.gov/files/imagecache/neh_large/humanities/articles/640px-waldenpondspring.jpg." Accessed November 5, 2013. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.neh.gov/files/imagecache/neh_large/humanities/articles/640px-waldenpondspring.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.neh.gov/humanities/2012/julyaugust/curio/thoreau-flora&h=276&w=460&sz=15&tbnid=SMjoeFwmb4-SGM:&tbnh=95&tbnw=158&zoom=1&usg=__N4cWg9ErWHDjUSgXduBvP3qwffY=&docid=VvQARlZ4Pqg_YM&sa=X&ei=9L5zUp_tNaGkigL02oGQAw&ved=0CDkQ9QEwAg. villy. English: Portrait by Benjamin D. Maxham (daguerreotype), Black and White of Henry David Thoreau in June 1856. The Writer-collar Post a Beard and Is Dressed in a Black Frock Coat, a White Shirt and a Black Bow Tie., November 7, 2004. http://eserver.org/thoreau/images.html. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Henry_David_Thoreau.jpg. "ファイル:WaldenPondSpring.jpg." Wikipedia. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%83%95%E3%82%A1%E3%82%A4%E3%83%AB:WaldenPondSpring.jpg. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 229241 Bozeman Science
Alleles and Genes
 
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Join the Amoeba Sisters as they discuss the terms "gene" and "allele" in context of a gene involved in PTC (phenylthiocarbamide) taste sensitivity. Note: as mentioned throughout video, the ability to taste PTC may be more complex than a single gene trait. This video serves as an introduction before exploring Punnett squares in our heredity series: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fcGDUcGjcyk&list=PLwL0Myd7Dk1FVxYPO_bVbk8oOD5EZ2o5W This video has a handout! http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts While this video only focuses on basic understanding of alleles and genes as well as the ability to taste- or not taste- PTC (phenylthiocarbamide), we encourage learning more! Here is a recommended reading that expands on the genetics involved in tasting PTC and includes some of the history in how it was discovered: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3349222/ Support us on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/amoebasisters Our FREE resources: GIFs: http://www.amoebasisters.com/gifs.html Handouts: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Comics: http://www.amoebasisters.com/parameciumparlorcomics Connect with us! Website: http://www.AmoebaSisters.com Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/AmoebaSisters Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AmoebaSisters Tumblr: http://www.amoebasisters.tumblr.com Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/AmoebaSister­s Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/amoebasistersofficial/ Visit our Redbubble store at http://www.amoebasisters.com/store.html The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching science at the high school level. Pinky's teacher certification is in grades 4-8 science and 8-12 composite science (encompassing biology, chemistry, and physics). Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach, and they focus on her specialty: secondary life science. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit: http://www.amoebasisters.com/about-us.html We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines https://www.youtube.com/yt/policyandsafety/communityguidelines.html and YouTube's policy center https://support.google.com/youtube/topic/2676378?hl=en&ref_topic=6151248. We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language. Music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/music?feature=blog We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages, and we are thankful for those that contribute different languages! YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are not affiliated with any of the translated subtitle credits that YouTube may place below. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.
Views: 407285 Amoeba Sisters
Genetic Engineering Will Change Everything Forever – CRISPR
 
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Designer babies, the end of diseases, genetically modified humans that never age. Outrageous things that used to be science fiction are suddenly becoming reality. The only thing we know for sure is that things will change irreversibly. Support us on Patreon so we can make more videos (and get cool stuff in return): https://www.patreon.com/Kurzgesagt?ty=h Kurzgesagt merch here: http://bit.ly/1P1hQIH Get the music of the video here: soundcloud: http://bit.ly/2aRxNZd bandcamp: http://bit.ly/2berrSW http://www.epic-mountain.com Thanks to Volker Henn, James Gurney and (prefers anonymity) for help with this video! THANKS A LOT TO OUR LOVELY PATRONS FOR SUPPORTING US: Jeffrey Schneider, Konstantin Kaganovich, Tom Leiser, Archie Castillo, Russell Eishard, Ben Kershaw, Marius Stollen, Henry Bowman, Ben Johns, Bogdan Radu, Sam Toland, Pierre Thalamy, Christopher Morgan, Rocks Arent People, Ross Devereux, Pascal Michaud, Derek DuBreuil, Sofia Quintero, Robert Swiniarski, Merkt Kızılırmak, Michelle Rowley, Andy Dong, Saphir Patel, Harris Rotto, Thomas Huzij, Ryan James Burke, NTRX, Chaz Lewis, Amir Resali, The War on Stupid, John Pestana, Lucien Delbert, iaDRM, Jacob Edwards, Lauritz Klaus, Jason Hunt, Marcus : ), Taylor Lau, Rhett H Eisenberg, Mr.Z, Jeremy Dumet, Fatman13, Kasturi Raghavan, Kousora, Rich Sekmistrz, Mozart Peter, Gaby Germanos, Andreas Hertle, Alena Vlachova, Zdravko Šašek SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: The best book we read about the topic: GMO Sapiens https://goo.gl/NxFmk8 (affiliate link, we get a cut if buy the book!) – Good Overview by Wired: http://bit.ly/1DuM4zq –timeline of computer development: http://bit.ly/1VtiJ0N – Selective breeding: http://bit.ly/29GaPVS – DNA: http://bit.ly/1rQs8Yk – Radiation research: http://bit.ly/2ad6wT1 – inserting DNA snippets into organisms: http://bit.ly/2apyqbj – First genetically modified animal: http://bit.ly/2abkfYO – First GM patent: http://bit.ly/2a5cCox – chemicals produced by GMOs: http://bit.ly/29UvTbh http://bit.ly/2abeHwU http://bit.ly/2a86sBy – Flavr Savr Tomato: http://bit.ly/29YPVwN – First Human Engineering: http://bit.ly/29ZTfsf – glowing fish: http://bit.ly/29UwuJU – CRISPR: http://go.nature.com/24Nhykm – HIV cut from cells and rats with CRISPR: http://go.nature.com/1RwR1xI http://ti.me/1TlADSi – first human CRISPR trials fighting cancer: http://go.nature.com/28PW40r first human CRISPR trial approved by Chinese for August 2016: http://go.nature.com/29RYNnK – genetic diseases: http://go.nature.com/2a8f7ny – pregnancies with Down Syndrome terminated: http://bit.ly/2acVyvg ( 1999 European study) – CRISPR and aging: http://bit.ly/2a3NYAV http://bit.ly/SuomTy http://go.nature.com/29WpDj1 http://ti.me/1R7Vus9 Help us caption & translate this video! http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCsXVk37bltHxD1rDPwtNM8Q&tab=2
Why Don't We All Have Cancer?
 
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Thanks to Cancer Research UK! http://www.cancerresearchuk.org Links to LEARN MORE and SOURCES are below. follow me: http://www.twitter.com/tweetsauce What is cancer? http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-info/cancerandresearch/all-about-cancer/what-is-cancer/ http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-info/cancerstats/keyfacts/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hallmarks_of_cancer Visualizing the prevention of cancer: http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-info/cancerstats/causes/attributable-risk/visualisation/ 10 cancer MYTHS debunked: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2014/03/24/dont-believe-the-hype-10-persistent-cancer-myths-debunked/ other cancer articles: http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/science/2014/02/deadliest_cancer_chart_shows_mortality_and_incidence_rates.html http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/05/sunday-review/why-everyone-seems-to-have-cancer.html?=ref=opinion&_r=6& http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/takeonestep/cancer/interviews-demetri.html http://www.huffingtonpost.com/bill-couzens/cancer-an-inevitable-stag_b_4558325.html http://www.wired.com/2013/05/al_argcancer/ http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2011/may/06/nuclear-power-leukaemia Stirling Engine: http://www.grand-illusions.com/acatalog/Low-Temperature-Stirling-Engine-612.html Stirling Engine: VIDEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zCGTNArwJ0s dying cells: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16355657 dead outer-layer of skin (the HORNY layer): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratum_corneum human skin in dust: http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/2000/2157.html mistakes in DNA replication: http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/dna-replication-and-causes-of-mutation-409 how long it takes cells to divide: http://www.wisegeek.org/how-long-does-it-take-for-cells-to-divide.htm not all genetic mutations causes cancer: http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/neutralmutations leading causes of death (in US): http://i1213.photobucket.com/albums/cc469/EternallyLearning/COD.jpg unbalanced skin damage: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMicm1104059 http://www.sungrubbies.com/product_index_html/UVASkinDamage.htm Giraffe tongues: http://www.noozhawk.com/article/102609_santa_barbara_zoos_male_giraffe_dies DNA repair mechanisms: http://www.abcam.com/index.html?pageconfig=resource&rid=11812 the Selection Shadow: http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/the-evolution-of-aging-23651151 life expectancy: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_expectancy Living after cancer diagnosis stats: http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-us/our-organisation/beating-cancer-sooner-our-strategy losing cells: http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/2001-02/981770369.An.r.html Cancer and the metaphor of war: http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/apr/25/having-cancer-not-fight-or-battle Cool image gallery: http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/biobeat/gallery/index.html extra: why do we age and die? http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2014/05/age/ http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/adventures-in-old-age/200903/problem-darwin-why-do-we-age-and-die-rather-live-forever http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution_of_ageing
Views: 7842325 Vsauce
The Science of Human Races, Part 1
 
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Perhaps I was too harsh on the "race realists" in my previous video. Human races exist in about the same way that eras in history exist. They are arbitrary and useful as broad generalizations. What I think I can easily show is that the Victorian idea of race essentialism: that the categories themselves are somehow more meaningful than any other, or that they are homotypic, is unscientific. Part 2 will cover more on this topic, particularly the abuse of the sociological definition of race to justify a kind of genetic determinism. A great number of primary sources went into the research for this video. I've annotated when I used figures, but you may also find the following articles useful in learning more: 1. "Evidence for Gradients of Human Genetic Diversity Within and Among Continents" Genome Res. 2004. 14: 1679-1685. http://genome.cshlp.org/content/14/9/1679.long 2. "Against Racial Medicine" Patterns of Prejudice, Vol. 40, 4:5, 2006 http://ncat.academia.edu/JosephGravesJr/Papers/148490/Against_Racial_Medicine NOTE: Graves is not without controversy, but this article covers many important topic at a level that many can understand. 3. "Fine-scaled human genetic structure revealed by SNP microarrays" Genome Res. 2009. 19: 815-825. http://genome.cshlp.org/content/19/5/815.long
Views: 184778 C0nc0rdance
Real life X-men: Biology of the world's greatest climbers - the Sherpa
 
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Forget Xavier's School for the Gifted - marvel instead at the real life superheroes on the roof of the world. For years anecdotes circulated amongst climbers, of the superhuman ability of the Sherpa to function at high altitude, when all others succumbed to mountain sickness - or worse. Now science has shown how they have evolved to live in one of the most inhospitable environments on Earth. Thousands of years living in the thin air of the Himalayan plateau has given the Sherpa biology that differs from lowlanders from the very cellular level. ---------- More Medlife Crisis: http://www.medlifecrisis.co.uk https://twitter.com/medcrisis https://www.facebook.com/Medlifecrisis https://www.instagram.com/medcrisis ---------- Much of the Sherpa science in this video comes from the Xtreme Everest team who are doing great work at high altitude to help sick patients (in normal sea-level hospitals!) https://www.xtreme-everest.co.uk/ ---------- Tashi Sherpa kindly got in touch to tell me he is the superhuman carrying that massive load at 00:03:35. His channel is here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC5XyMzu6DCU4UAZDxMcareg ---------- It's hard to express how much I love Nepal, please consider visiting responsibly or donating. The 2015 Earthquake killed 9000 and displaced many more. Whilst climbing brings in a lot of money to the Nepalese economy, the government are complicit in the exploitation of Sherpa guides. The Tenzing Norgay (co-1st to summit Everest) Foundation http://www.sherpatenzingnorgay.com/index-noflash.html The Apa Sherpa (21 Everest summits) Foundation https://www.apasherpafoundation.org/ Action Aid Nepal https://www.actionaid.org.uk/about-us/where-we-work/nepal Community Action Nepal https://www.canepal.org.uk/ Save the Children Nepal https://www.savethechildren.org/us/what-we-do/where-we-work/asia/nepal Alpine Ascents (Sherpa Education Fund) http://www.alpineascentsfoundation.org/ I'm also including a link to Maiti Nepal, for whom I raised money for on my first visit, as I think they're a brilliant charity that work to prevent violence towards and trafficking of Nepalese girls and women. http://maitinepal.org/ ---------- Clips credited with thanks. Special mention to two awesome films: Sherpa by Jennifer Peedom http://sherpafilm.com/ Short film from The Feed: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CtbQgLIuFyg ---------- The video about cycling and haematocrits: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hT8GZlBBv5k&t=1s ---------- Thumbnail image from Aaron Huey (featured at 00:04:27) ---------- Links to papers cited: Main Sherpa physiology paper: http://www.pnas.org/content/114/24/6382 Evolutionary genetic history of the Sherpa: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5407610/ More about Sherpa and Denisovans: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4134395/ Comparisons between Andeans and Tibetans: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1876443/ and also with Ethiopian https://academic.oup.com/icb/article/46/1/18/661204
Views: 303258 Medlife Crisis
Origins of the Universe 101 | National Geographic
 
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How old is the universe, and how did it begin? Throughout history, countless myths and scientific theories have tried to explain the universe's origins. The most widely accepted explanation is the big bang theory. Learn about the explosion that started it all and how the universe grew from the size of an atom to encompass everything in existence today. ➡ Subscribe: http://bit.ly/NatGeoSubscribe About National Geographic: National Geographic is the world's premium destination for science, exploration, and adventure. Through their world-class scientists, photographers, journalists, and filmmakers, Nat Geo gets you closer to the stories that matter and past the edge of what's possible. Get More National Geographic: Official Site: http://bit.ly/NatGeoOfficialSite Facebook: http://bit.ly/FBNatGeo Twitter: http://bit.ly/NatGeoTwitter Instagram: http://bit.ly/NatGeoInsta Origins of the Universe 101 | National Geographic https://youtu.be/HdPzOWlLrbE National Geographic https://www.youtube.com/natgeo
Views: 833946 National Geographic