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What is STATE RESPONSIBILITY? What does STATE RESPONSIBILITY mean? STATE RESPONSIBILITY meaning
 
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What is STATE RESPONSIBILITY? What does STATE RESPONSIBILITY mean? STATE RESPONSIBILITY meaning - STATE RESPONSIBILITY definition - STATE RESPONSIBILITY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ The laws of state responsibility are the principles governing when and how a state is held responsible for a breach of an international obligation. Rather than set forth any particular obligations, the rules of state responsibility determine, in general, when an obligation has been breached and the legal consequences of that violation. In this way they are "secondary" rules that address basic issues of responsibility and remedies available for breach of "primary" or substantive rules of international law, such as with respect to the use of armed force. Because of this generality, the rules can be studied independently of the primary rules of obligation. They establish (1) the conditions of actions to qualify as internationally wrongful, (2) the circumstances under which actions of officials, private individuals and other entities may be attributed to the state, (3) general defences to liability and (4) the consequences of liability. Until recently, the theory of the law of state responsibility was not well developed. The position has now changed, with the adoption of the Draft Articles on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts ("Draft Articles") by the International Law Commission (ILC) in August 2001. The Draft Articles are a combination of codification and progressive development. They have already been cited by the International Court of Justice and have generally been well received. Although the articles are general in coverage, they do not necessarily apply in all cases. Particular treaty regimes, such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the European Convention on Human Rights, have established their own special rules of responsibility.
Views: 1320 The Audiopedia
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
 
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The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties is a treaty concerning the international law on treaties between states. It was adopted on 22 May 1969 and opened for signature on 23 May 1969. The Convention entered into force on 27 January 1980. The VCLT has been ratified by 114 states as of April 2014. Some countries that have not ratified the Convention, such as the United States, recognize parts of it as a restatement of customary law and binding upon them as such. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 19205 Audiopedia
SKETCHY ANTARCTICA LAWS: Prohibits MlLlTARY ACTIVITY Except In SUPPORT Of SCIENCE
 
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✔Preparing for a populous future in which Antarctica — the world’s only continent without countries and citizens — may see more tourists, over-exploited fisheries, disputes and crime, India is drafting a dedicated Antarctica policy and a law that will likely be tabled in the winter session of Parliament. ✔Ministry of Earth Sciences officials tasked with drafting the law said that India, being among the countries that have acceded to the Antarctica Treaty, is expected to have a clear policy on the consequences of its activities in the region. ✔The treaty is framed to ensure ‘in the interests of all mankind that Antarctica shall continue forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and shall not become the scene or object of international discord.’ ✔To this end it prohibits military activity, except in support of science; prohibits nuclεar explσsions and the disposal of nuclεar waste; promotes scientific research and the exchange of data; and holds all territorial claims in abeyance. Many pacts for region ✔Several related conventions, such as the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972) and the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980), are appended to this treaty for protection. However, these laws also mean that conventional concepts such as territories and jurisdicti- ons do not hold good here. ✔India is expanding its infrastructure development in Antarctica. The government is rebuilding its station, Maitri, to make it bigger and last for at least 30 years. Dakshin Gangotri, the first Indian base established in 1984, has weakened and become just a supply base. A committee that includes Biman Patel, Vice-Chancellor, Gujarat National Law University, has been asked to draft the new ‘Antarctica law.’ ✔M. Ravichandran, Director, National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research, said clear laws are necessary on a wide range of matters, including “domestic disputes between residents.” South Africa and Australia have specific laws. ARTICLE: https://www.google.com/amp/www.thehindu.com/news/national/a-law-this-time-for-antarctica/article19128630.ece/amp/ ★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★    🇱🇷🇱🇷🇱🇷🇱🇷🇱🇷🇱🇷🇱🇷🇱🇷🇱🇷🇱🇷🇱🇷🇱🇷🇱🇷🇱🇷🇱🇷🇱🇷🇱🇷🇱🇷 ❤❤SUPPORT MY CHANNEL & WORK HERE⤵❤❤           https://www.patreon/JamesMunder ★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ ✔NEWS, ✔LAUGHS & A Couple Other Things...   Trying To Figure Out What's Really Going On ✔
Views: 1811 James Munder
What is MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING? What does MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING mean?
 
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What is MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING? What does MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING mean? MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING meaning - MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING definition - MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ A memorandum of understanding (MoU) is an agreement between two (bilateral) or more (multilateral) parties. It expresses a convergence of will between the parties, indicating an intended common line of action. It is often used in cases where parties either do not imply a legal commitment or in situations where the parties cannot create a legally enforceable agreement. It is a more formal alternative to a gentlemen's agreement. Whether a document constitutes a binding contract depends only on the presence or absence of well-defined legal elements in the text proper of the document (the so-called "four corners"). The required elements are: offer and acceptance, consideration, and the intention to be legally bound (animus contrahendi). In the U.S., the specifics can differ slightly depending on whether the contract is for goods (falls under the Uniform Commercial Code ) or services (falls under the common law of the state). Many companies and government agencies use MoUs to define a relationship between departments, agencies or closely held companies. In the United Kingdom, such an MoU is often called a concordat. An example is the 2004 Concordat between bodies inspecting, regulating and auditing health or social care. The term is often used in the context of devolution, for example the 1999 concordat between the central Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and the Scottish Environment Directorate. In international relations, MoUs fall under the broad category of treaties and should be registered in the United Nations treaty collection. In practice and in spite of the United Nations' Legal Section's insistence that registration be done to avoid 'secret diplomacy', MoUs are sometimes kept confidential. As a matter of law, the title of MoU does not necessarily mean the document is binding or not binding under international law. To determine whether a particular MoU is meant to be a legally binding document (i.e., a treaty), one needs to examine the parties’ intent as well as the signatories' position (e.g., Minister of Foreign Affairs vs. Minister of Environment). A careful analysis of the wording will also clarify the exact nature of the document. The International Court of Justice has provided some insight into the determination of the legal status of a document in the landmark case of Qatar v. Bahrain, 1 July 1994. One advantage of MoUs over more formal instruments is that, because obligations under international law may be avoided, they can be put into effect in most countries without requiring parliamentary approval. Hence, MoUs are often used to modify and adapt existing treaties, in which case these MoUs have factual treaty status. The decision concerning ratification, however, is determined by the parties' internal law and depends to a large degree on the subject agreed upon. MoUs that are kept confidential (i.e., not registered with the UN) cannot be enforced before any UN organ, and it may be concluded that no obligations under international law have been created. As was obvious in Qatar v. Bahrain, disputes may arise concerning the status of the document once one of the parties seeks to enforce its provisions. Although MoUs in the multilateral field are seldom seen, the transnational aviation agreements are actually MoUs.
Views: 2572 The Audiopedia
Research Handbook on the Law of Treaties
 
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BOOK REVIEW RESEARCH HANDBOOK ON THE LAW OF TREATIES Edited by Christian J Tams, Antonios Tzanakopoulos, and Andreas Zimmermann with Athene E Richford Edward Elgar Publishing Limited Research Handbooks in International Law ISBN: 978 0 85793 477 2 www.e-elgar.com THE MODERN LAW OF TREATIES: CHANGES AND CHALLENGES An appreciation by Phillip Taylor MBE and Elizabeth Taylor of Richmond Green Chambers For researchers, scholars and international lawyers seeking additional breadth and depth of understanding within this often bewildering and complex subject, this recent title from Edward Elgar Publishing is a real find. The general aim is to present an authoritative explanation of a range of key issues in international treaty law. And authoritative it is. No less than twenty-four international academics and scholars have contributed the more than twenty articles that comprise this volume. Included among them are the three editors. Christopher J. Tams is Professor of Public International Law at the University of Glasgow… Antonio Tzanakopoulos is Associate Professor of Public International Law at Oxford University… and Andreas Zimmerman, from the University of Potsdam, is also Professor of Public International Law. Their introduction establishes with considerable clarity the perspective and intent of the book, namely to subject the realities and challenges of treaties -- in all their bewildering variety -- to rigorous and thoughtful analysis. In more or less elementary terms a treaty is, in most respects, an agreement and ideally a contract, but is it indeed binding? Or should it be binding temporarily, or in perpetuity? Obviously there is no one answer because, also obviously, every treaty is different. The editors remind us of certain fundamentals relating to treaties without which international law and international relations would scarcely exist. We benefit, for example, (in most instances), from boundary treaties, human rights treaties and such matters as passport regulations derived from treaties. Some treaties, say the editors, ‘reflect the international community’s hope for a more just world order; others entrench grave injustices’. It is not too difficult to recall here, the number of treaties throughout history that have been violated or ignored. Yet, as the editors imply, treaties function as the principal instrument for ordering international relations. Apparently around 56,500 treaties have been registered with the United Nations since the end of World War I (who knew?)… and this figure in no way reflects the total! ‘Foundational and ubiquitous’, treaties are, unsurprisingly, in need of a legal framework and therefore merit careful study as a specialist subject. With its original, thought provoking and densely argued commentaries, this book makes an important contribution to the literature of international law and should be of particular interest to academics, researchers and international lawyers, especially those seeking new perspectives on the matter of treaties and EU law. The publication date is cited as at 2014.
Views: 288 Phillip Taylor
NA supports enactment of law on international treaties.
 
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National Assembly members have supported the enactment of the Law on Treaties and International Agreements, which would be a reference for future internal and external cooperation. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs introduced the newly drafted law for consideration by the National Assembly (NA), with the law tabled for debate yesterday. Introducing the draft, Minister of Foreign Affairs Mr Saleumxay Kommasith briefed NA members about the need to enact the law. Laos has participated in treaties referring to the President’s Ordinance No.1 dated October 7, 2009 on the creation, participation in and implementation of international treaties but there were no regulations on the implementation of international laws. The draft law has 8 parts and 23 chapters which are divided into 136 articles. National Assembly Vice President Mr Bounpone Bouttanavong, who presided over the debate, asked Assembly members to focus on the law’s stipulations concerning the principles for creating and implementing treaties and international laws and the relations between treaties and stipulations in internal laws. Mr Bounpone asked for recommendations from NA members on treaty negotiation and signing and the role of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the National Assembly in this process. NA member for Vientiane province, Mr Hongkham Souvannavong, said he supported the draft and wanted the Assembly to consider the signing of all international laws on important national issues. The draft law defines an international law as a written agreement created by a government agency at the central or provincial level with a foreign party on international cooperation in the framework of their role, their rights and obligations, which is enforceable by the said agency. International laws as defined by the draft include agreements, Memorandums of Understanding (MoUs), meeting minutes, exchange notes, and cooperation projects and plans. NA member for Saravan province, Mr Savankhone Razmountry, said he wanted the law to more clearly define the level of enforceability of each of these international legal documents. He referred to experiences in his sector, saying that unclear definitions, such as MoUs and their enforceability, had delayed their signing. Most NA members expressed their support for the enactment of the law which they said would promote effective and efficient implementation of treaties and international laws while addressing the challenges in coordination, procedure, limitation of rights and obligations of the related sectors. By Times Reporters (Latest Update May 9, 2017)
Views: 100 Vientiane Times
How a Bill Becomes a Law: Crash Course Government and Politics #9
 
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Oh my, Craig has his work cut out for him this week. The process of how a bill becomes a law can be pretty complex, fraught with potential bill-death at every corner. As if just getting through committee isn’t difficult enough, bills have to navigate a series of amendments and votes in both houses, potentially more committees, further compromise bills, and even more floor votes, just to end up on the chopping block of the president. And then in one fell swoop the president can stop a bill in its tracks with a veto! But then again, a presidential veto isn’t necessarily a bill’s end either. As you can see we’ve got to lot to cover, and we’ll be the first to admit this has been covered before, and extraordinarily well might we add, by the folks at School House Rock. But we’ll give it our best shot - without the singing of course. Well, not too much singing anyway. Support is provided by Voqal: http://www.voqal.org This episode is sponsored by Squarespace: http://www.squarespace.com/crashcourse Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids
Views: 894776 CrashCourse
Patent Claim Drafting - 5 Core Principles - 12 Common Mistakes - My Favorite Strategy #rolfclaessen
 
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How to draft patent claims? - https://www.freischem.eu - https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=rolfclaessen #rolfclaessen General - How infringement will be proven? You have to keep in mind how easy it will be to deliver proof for patent infringement. Can you later easily find proof for a complex mixture of polymers in the final product with regard to their identity and their weight percentages? - How can the claims be circumvented and avoided by competitors? Always have the infringer in mind when drafting patent claims. What would you tell an infringer how he could circumvent this patent claim? Now for the basic steps how to draft patent claims: 1) What is the invention, what are the pieces and parts of the invention. Are there multiple versions of the invention? First you need to really understand the invention in great details and understand, how a particular example of the invention works from start to finish. 2) Search for Prior Art: do a good search for prior art and identify as many differences to the invention per relevant document as possible. 3) Two-Part-Claims: Preamble, Body: The most generic version of your invention is defined. There is at least some difference when compared with the prior art. Try to find one feature or an as broad as possible combination of features that distinguishes the claimed subject matter from the prior art. 4) Are all features somehow connected? If the features are not physically or logically connected, the examiner may object to the claims for expressing several distinct inventions and you may have to divide the patent application. 5) Different claim types? Did you use different claim types? 12 common mistakes: - More than one sentence: only write one sentence per claim. Otherwise it is considered unclear and the features of the second sentence may not be seen as limiting the scope. - Word “and”: when claiming a list of things that are parts of an invention, use the word “and” only before the last part in a list. - Transitional phrases: characterized in that, Comprising, consisting of, having, composed of: “characterized in that” divides the preamble of a claim from the body and is the most common and general phrase to do so. “Comprising” is followed by an open list that may also comprise additional elements that are not listed in the claim. “consisting of” is followed by a closed list. No other elements are present in the invention – typically resulting in a very narrow scope. - Inconsistent terminology: always use the same word for the same concept in your patent application. Example: do not use car and automobile in your application to mean the exact same concept. - Claiming a result: try to avoid claiming a result rather than the concepts achieve the result. Result oriented language is typically objected to as unclear. - Too little detail: Don't leave anything out of a claim which is necessary to work the invention and necessary to distinguish the claim from the prior art. - Too much detail: try to leave out any feature that is not necessary to work the invention and distinguish the claimed invention from the prior art. This will make your claim too narrow. - Dependent claims that broaden or contradict the independent claims: - No trademarks in claims: avoid trademarks in claims - Avoid “means plus function” - Antecendent basis: when you first introduce a new feature in the set of claims, use the indefinite article. From then on use the definite article “the” to refer this this particular feature previously mentioned in the claims. Now for my personal strategy to get a really strong set of claims and patent application: 1) Identify the most relevant e.g. 5 prior art documents. 2) Identify as many technical differences to each of these documents, e.g. at least 20 per document. 3) Use the common differentiating feature that can least easily be circumvented by infringers as the body in the first claim. Include other such features in the dependent claims. Include all other such features in the description as preferred embodiments. Here are some valuable resources: http://www.wipo.int/edocs/pubdocs/en/patents/867/wipo_pub_867.pdf http://www.ipwatchdog.com/2013/05/25/patent-claim-drafting-101-the-basics/id=40886/ http://www.ipwatchdog.com/2013/10/11/drafting-patent-applications-writing-method-claims-2/id=45670/ Legalese and Disclaimer You have been watching a video by Rolf Claessen. The views expressed by the participants of this program are their own and do not represent the views of nor are they endorsed by their respective law firms. None of the content should be considered legal advice. This video should not be construed as legal advice or legal opinion on any specific facts or circumstances. The contents of this video are intended for general informational purposes only and you are urged to consult your own patent attorney on any specific legal questions. As always, consult a patent attorney.
Views: 10416 FREISCHEM & PARTNER
Nigel Farage: Responds to Draft EU Withdrawal Agreement
 
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Nigel Farage, former UKIP leader, gives his response to the EU Draft Withdrawal Agreement, and argues that the establishment are colluding with the EU on Brexit. We're new! Subscribe to Core Politics ►► https://goo.gl/aLFBjC CONNECT WITH CORE POLITICS Twitter: https://twitter.com/CorePoliticsTV Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/CorePolitics Web: http://www.corepolitics.tv ABOUT CORE POLITICS Based at studios down the road from Westminster, we are an online television channel, offering on-demand, bite-sized politics news digests and interviews with leading political opinion formers from Westminster and beyond. Made by Core London
Views: 43337 Core Politics
LAW121 - The "Sealord Case"
 
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Maori rights to fisheries is based on Article two of both the Maori and English versions of the Treaty and tikanga Maori. The Crown's introduction of the Quota Management System to manage the fisheries in 1985 created private property rights that breached this right. After a number of Waitangi Tribunal hearings and legal challenges, the High Court and the Court of Appeal granted Maori and interim order that prompted negotiations between Maori and the Crown. This resulted in a Deed of Settlement that said it would be a full and final settlement of all Maori fisheries claims. The settlement was incorporated in legislation. In the case Te Runanga o Wharekauri Rekohu v Attorney General of number of iwi who did not sign the Deed of Settlement unsuccessfully challenged the right of the executive to draft legislation terminating their legal rights over fisheries.
Views: 10619 mohsenalattar1
How it works: European laws
 
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An animated guide to the creation of EU legislation from start to finish. Unlike what happens in Member States, in the EU only the Commission can propose directives or legally binding regulations. Neither the States nor the EP have this power. But these proposals never just fall from the sky. In fact, the European Commission listens to voices that are raised across Europe for or against the creation of new laws. At this stage the MEPs are also included. They often adopt recommendations. From 2012 European citizens will also be able to ask directly for new draft laws. For that, one million Europeans from at least seven countries will need to sign a petition. After listening to all sides, the Commission finally presents a draft law. That's the start of a long process which takes 12 to 18 months. The draft then goes to the EU Council, representing the States, and to the EU Parliament, representing the citizens. In 80% of cases, the two institutions have equal power. That's called the ordinary legislative procedure. There's no question of legislating on everything. The EU can make laws on the environment, agriculture, transport... The list is growing. But the States have an absolute right of veto on social security, taxation, or foreign affairs and defence, for example. Returning to draft laws, before adoption, they go through the institutional mill. The EU Council and the EP amend the drafts according to their interests and according to the majorities that take shape. Since the States and MEPs rarely agree first time around, they must negotiate. Two possible outcomes: Either the two institutions reach a compromise and the draft law can be adopted after a vote by MEPs. Or there's no agreement and negotiations must continue. If the negotiations fail once, the clock starts ticking to find agreement before a deadline. If there's still disagreement, the draft law quite simply fails and the whole procedure has to start again. But in fact that very rarely happens. When there's agreement, the new European law is officially adopted and all Member States must then apply it. Well, almost. Sometimes States receive a derogation. If they fail to comply, the European Commission will act once again. It can call bad students to order. And if that fails the Court of Justice of the EU takes over. In the worst cases, States can be required to pay heavy fines, but that's another story. EuroparlTV video ID: 2943a9f1-0a1a-4f7c-9fe8-9f82009fa481
Views: 33716 EuroparlTV EN
What Is The Treaty Of Lisbon?
 
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The treaty of lisbon was signed by the eu member states on 13 december 2007, and entered into force 1 2009 sep 22, 2015 2009, after having been ratified all countries in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements. Treaty of lisbon wikipedia. The treaty of lisbon an impact assessment united kingdom wikisource, the free online library. The future of the eu and brexit comes down to five bullet quartz. Bbc news q&a the lisbon treaty. The treaty of lisbon europe's next step? real truth. Nov 4, 2009 following ratification of the lisbon treaty by czech republic on 3 november 2009, (the treaty) has now been ratified three years later, european union signed lisbon, intending that all member states ratify new laws end 2008, and it be in force for multilevel constitutionalism action byintroduction amends (teu) tre this is a consolidated version including articles mar 13, 2008 10th report session 2007 08lisbon an impact assessmentordered to printed 26 february apr 9, 2017 nice. Lisbon treaty eur lex europa eueu fact sheets the lisbon treatyhistory, summary, & definition of article 50 q a your guide to what it means and happens rfi is treaty, does do? . Treaty of lisbon wikipedia the treaty (initially known as reform treaty) is an international agreement which amends two treaties form constitutional basis european union (eu). Treaty of lisbon amending the treaty on european union and establishing community (2007) mar 28, 2017 lisbon, signed in 2007, amends updates rome. The treaty of lisbon is broadly inspired by the constitutional fact sheets provide an overview european integration and role parliament. The lisbon treaty was signed by the heads of state and government 27 eu member states on 13 december 2007. Read more about the treaty of lisbon introduction. It intends to change the way that european council, which met in lisbon on 18th and 19th october 2007 approved new reform treaty so called 'lisbon treaty', replaces draft jan 17, 2011 became law 1 december 2009, eight years after leaders launched a process make eu 'more democratic of nice was conceived by governments fifteen as transitory treaty, allowing community union (ec eu) function updated regulations for union, establishing more centralized leadership foreign policy may 15, 2008 don't have clue what we are being asked vote upcoming referendum june 12th? Join rest 21, 2009. The eu parliament and the treaty of lisbonthe lisbon brief overview key changes lexology. Europedia the treaty of lisbon a constitution without titlethe for dummies independent. It is intended to reform the lisbon treaty international agreement that amended maastricht treaty, treaties of rome, and other documents simplify streamline institutions sep 4, 2009 what treaty? The controversial successor european union constitution billed as 28, was signed on 13 december 2007 at jernimos monastery in lisbon, portugal. The treaty of lisbon judicial studies program at the university on functioning european union eu d
Views: 44 Dead Question
The rights of indigenous peoples - James Anaya
 
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James Anaya is a Regents Professor and the James J. Lenoir Professor of Human Rights Law and Policy at the University of Arizona College of Law. An expert in international human rights and issues concerning indigenous groups, Mr. Anaya served as the Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of Indigenous Peoples for the United Nations.
Prof. Rob Natelson Introduces Draft of Convention of States Rules
 
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Leading Article V expert Professor Rob Natelson introduces draft of Convention of States rules that will be further debated and discussed by members of the Convention of States Caucus. Help make it happen: http://tinyurl.com/jy8noyy
The Right to Life before Birth in International Law V2
 
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(Subtitles in French and English) This video discusses the intentions of the writers of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, in light of the current context, with the Human Rights Committee trying to impose abortion as a right to life. It features: - Dr Grégor Puppinck, Director of the ECLJ, who wrote an article on Abortion and the ECHR available here: http://urlz.fr/645F and directed a book on the prevention of abortion in Europe: http://urlz.fr/645N - Mrs Rita Joseph, who wrote the book "Human Rights and the Unborn Child", published by Martinus Nijhoff publishers. - Dr Thomas Finegan teaches in Ireland and wrote an article on "International Human Rights Law and the Unborn." - Josh Craddock, Harvard Law School Student who wrote an article on prenatal protection: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2970761 Music from Kevin MacLeod (Facile & Ashton Manor Stings) More info on www.eclj.org
Views: 290 Officiel ECLJ
Belgium: Barnier unveils draft Brexit treaty
 
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The European Union's chief negotiator Michel Barnier unveiled his draft Brexit treaty in Brussels on Wednesday, including a 'provocative' section about the new hard border in Ireland. "To maintain full alignment with those rules of the Internal Market and the Customs Union which, now or in the future, support North-South cooperation, the all-island economy and the protection of the Good Friday Agreement. This is the backstop solution," said Barnier. This is one of three new proposed solutions to solve the hard border issue. The so-called backstop would effectively create a common regulatory framework for the whole the island. The UK government responded by saying that the text threatens the constitutional and territorial integrity of the nation. The complete draft text is 120-pages long and contains 168-articles. Subscribe to our channel! rupt.ly/subscribe Video ID: 20180228 019 Video on Demand: http://www.ruptly.tv Contact: [email protected] Twitter: http://twitter.com/Ruptly Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/Ruptly
Views: 165 Ruptly
Dr Aniruddha Rajput | Codification & Progressive Development of International Law (Part 2)
 
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Dr. Aniruddha Rajput is a Member of the UN International Law Commission (2017-21). He was the Chairperson of the Drafting Committee for the 69th Session of the ILC in 2017. His areas of expertise are general international law, dispute resolution, boundary disputes, law of the sea, international investment law and international trade law. He has advised governments on proceedings before the International Court of Justice, private clients on proceedings under the Alien Tort Claims Act before the US Courts, and human rights and other public international law litigation in the Supreme Court of India. He has taught courses in international law at several Universities and presently serves as a member of the Board of Studies of the South Asian University crated by the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries. He was a member of the Study Group Constituted by the Law Commission of India on the 2015 Draft Indian Model BIT and a member of the 5th Haryana State Finance Commission constituted under Article 243 I and Y of the Constitution of India. His recent book ‘Protection of Foreign Investment in India and Investment Treaty Arbitration’ was published by Kluwer International. During 2017, he was a Practitioner-in-Residence at the Berlin Potsdam Research Group International Rule of Law -Rise or Decline? based at the Humboldt University Berlin
Views: 75 thinkindiatube
Dr Aniruddha Rajput | Codification & Progressive Development of International Law (Part 1)
 
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Dr. Aniruddha Rajput is a Member of the UN International Law Commission (2017-21). He was the Chairperson of the Drafting Committee for the 69th Session of the ILC in 2017. His areas of expertise are general international law, dispute resolution, boundary disputes, law of the sea, international investment law and international trade law. He has advised governments on proceedings before the International Court of Justice, private clients on proceedings under the Alien Tort Claims Act before the US Courts, and human rights and other public international law litigation in the Supreme Court of India. He has taught courses in international law at several Universities and presently serves as a member of the Board of Studies of the South Asian University crated by the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries. He was a member of the Study Group Constituted by the Law Commission of India on the 2015 Draft Indian Model BIT and a member of the 5th Haryana State Finance Commission constituted under Article 243 I and Y of the Constitution of India. His recent book ‘Protection of Foreign Investment in India and Investment Treaty Arbitration’ was published by Kluwer International. During 2017, he was a Practitioner-in-Residence at the Berlin Potsdam Research Group International Rule of Law -Rise or Decline? based at the Humboldt University Berlin
Views: 122 thinkindiatube
The current core of IHL treaties
 
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C1V7DEF.mp4 LVNIHLXX2017-V000800
Non Interference and state responsibility India to compensate for Yadav actions
 
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The State has to self-discipline and this principle applies universally. Whether it is Pakistan or India that is in violation of international law, it must correct itself. Mr. Soofi discusses the International Law Commission's Draft Articles on State Responsibility in the context of Yadav.
Views: 31 Ahmer Bilal Soofi
William Fisher, CopyrightX: Lecture 1.4, The Foundations of Copyright Law: Multilateral Treaties
 
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The terms on which this lecture may be used or modified are available at http://copyx.org/permission. The lecture was prepared for a Harvard Law School course on Copyright Law, and for the CopyrightX course, offered under the auspices of HarvardX. Information concerning both courses can be found at http://copyx.org.
Public international law
 
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Public international law concerns the structure and conduct of sovereign states; analogous entities, such as the Holy See; and intergovernmental organizations. To a lesser degree, international law also may affect multinational corporations and individuals, an impact increasingly evolving beyond domestic legal interpretation and enforcement. Public international law has increased in use and importance vastly over the twentieth century, due to the increase in global trade, environmental deterioration on a worldwide scale, awareness of human rights violations, rapid and vast increases in international transportation and a boom in global communications. The field of study combines two main branches: the law of nations (jus gentium) and international agreements and conventions (jus inter gentes). This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 22515 Audiopedia
COP21 UN Climate Treaty at Paris, Climate Change Reality Exposed CON 21
 
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The REAL reason for chemtrails (induced contrails) https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/paris-2015-securing-our-prosperity-through-a-global-climate-change-agreement 1772 It may be thought that a real history of the weather modification began in 1772 when the Bavarian Academy of Sciences declared a prize for any successful way to change weather according to a human need. http://www.eolss.net/Sample-Chapters/C01/E4-03-04-08.pdf 1872 Air and Rain the Beginnings of Climatology https://ia700508.us.archive.org/10/items/airrainbeginning00smitiala/airrainbeginning00smitiala.pdf 1905 electrical manipulation of weather http://www.google.com/patents/US803180 1906 J.J.Thomson conduction of electricity through gases (air) https://ia902700.us.archive.org/28/items/conductionofele00thomuoft/conductionofele00thomuoft.pdf 1914 Rain Maker http://www.google.com/patents/US1103490 1925 Electrical means to dispell fog and create rain http://www.google.com/patents/US1928963 1930... planes rainmaking with powdered CO2 (Dry ice) http://krishikosh.egranth.ac.in/bitstream/1/2037023/1/10110.pdf 1945 Outline for Weather and Climate control http://www.meteohistory.org/2008historyofmeteorology4/4zworykin.pdf 1946 UN Protocol of Privileges and Immunity(protection for climate scientists?) http://www.un.org/en/ethics/pdf/convention.pdf 1940-50's weather modification development http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/weather-control-as-a-cold-war-weapon-1777409/?no-ist 1952 UK MET office kill 35 innocents in the dead of night Operation Cumulus. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wbVpNBku0LE 1958 Lyndon Johnson "whoever controls space will control the weather" 1958..http://www.usafa.edu/df/dfh/docs/Harmon49.pdf 1959 Eyes In Outer Space - Science Factual presentation weather control. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t3HaWViVjF8 1961 JFK addresses UN - http://www.state.gov/p/io/potusunga/207241.htmweather control 1962 Speech on mind control of the masses and scientific dictatorship. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5RX-iUfPJ9I 1962 Operation Pop Eye Vietnam weather warfare http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/popeye.htm 1965 Weather and Climate Modification https://www.nsf.gov/nsb/publications/1965/nsb1265.pdf 1967 Law investigation into weather modification http://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2877&context=californialawreview 1967 126 nations working on weather control, Moscow and Washington working together. https://fbcdn-sphotos-d-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-xpa1/v/t1.0-9/1526630_10153014469105396_6176816540763056649_n.jpg?oh=f40e99125bba70512482150410b8a55b&oe=5567A30A&__gda__=1432072544_88d1a38cd4442f4eebd2d992dde468a4 1970 Brezinski's book "Between Two Ages" https://ia802308.us.archive.org/5/items/pdfy-z5FBdAnrFME2m1U4/Zbigniew%20Brzezinski%20-%20Between%20Two%20Ages.pdf 1972 (784 page) report on weather modification https://ia801703.us.archive.org/27/items/weatificat00unit/weatificat00unit.pdf 1978 ENMOD Treaty to stop weather warfare. http://www.state.gov/t/isn/4783.htm 1984 US4653690 * Nov 5, 1984 Mar 31, 1987 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Method of producing cumulus clouds 1987 Altering a region of the atmosphere http://www.google.com/patents/US4686605 creation of artificial ionised clouds http://www.google.com/patents/US4999637 1996 Owning the weather 2025 http://csat.au.af.mil/2025/volume3/vol3ch15.pdf 1999 1999 EU concern HAARP affects climate...there are many ionospheric heaters around the worldhttp://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+REPORT+A4-1999-0005+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN 2010 Inadvertent weather modification https://www.ametsoc.org/poli/2010inadvertentweather_mod_amsstatement.html 2013 UN/WMO 42 nations full time weather modification programs http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/wwrp/new/documents/Doc_3_6_weather_mod_2013_Final_tn.pdf
Article 13 EU Copyright Directive & The Death Of THIS Channel
 
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article 13 the EU copyright directive, threatens platforms the ability to move and distribute content on the internet. youtube have announced that they would essentially block all access, from creators and viewers alike, in countries effected by this law. it would mean my channel would die and sadly, a place that we all built together, would be gone forever. this is just a personal video, from me, to you. please read - https://www.youtube.com/intl/en-GB/saveyourinternet/ #article13 #eucopyright #saveyourinternet #news amazon Affiliate link - https://amzn.to/2HlJFzh Those wanting to become a patron - https://www.patreon.com/MrHreviews send me things to unbox! Mr H PO Box 955 TAUNTON TA1 9NS follow me on twitter to interact with me and suggest future videos - https://twitter.com/MrHreviews For business and general inquiries - [email protected] like, comment, share and subscribe :) thank you!! COPYRIGHT DISCLAIMER Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use.
Views: 10059 Mr H Reviews
Hungary says it will seek legal ways to challenge a EUParliament vote which would start Article 7
 
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Hungary says it will seek legal ways to challenge a European Parliament vote which would start Article 7 proceedings against the country.
Views: 1008 euronews (in English)
Prevention of Corruption (Amendment) Act 2018 - India against corruption - Current Affairs 2018
 
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Download UPSCIQ Magazine - http://bit.ly/2DH1ZWq || Download All Videos PDFs - https://goo.gl/X8UMwF || Join #StudyIQ on Telegram - https://goo.gl/xBR3g8 || #Pendrive_Courses for Various Govt. Exams. Click here to know more - https://goo.gl/aTFK6Q or #Call_9580048004 or Live Chat Support - https://goo.gl/s68PZ1 UPSC/CSE 2019 - https://goo.gl/UrCD46 SSC & Bank - https://goo.gl/9LQ4Ai UPSC Optionals - https://goo.gl/rtmXRU State PSCs - https://goo.gl/FDB32q Defence Exams - https://goo.gl/UEmtRz SSC JE Exams - https://goo.gl/2WyU1Z RBI Grade B - https://goo.gl/PY32m6 NABARD Grade A - https://goo.gl/C6CzAL DMRC Exams - https://goo.gl/yDnvyf Insurance Exams - https://goo.gl/iLEFxf CLAT 2019 - https://goo.gl/Burjtj Railway Jobs - https://goo.gl/5KaL7h Teaching Jobs - https://goo.gl/q117TX UPSC Prelim 2019Test Series -https://goo.gl/zkCG51 Free PDFs - https://goo.gl/cJufZc || Free Quiz - https://goo.gl/wCxZsy || Free Video Courses - https://goo.gl/jtMKP9" Follow us on Facebook - https://goo.gl/iAhPDJ Telegram - https://t.me/Studyiqeducation The Hindu Editorial Analysis - https://goo.gl/vmvHjG Current Affairs by Dr Gaurav Garg - https://goo.gl/bqfkXe UPSC/IAS Burning Issues analysis- https://goo.gl/2NG7vP World History for UPSC - https://goo.gl/J7DLXv Indian History - https://goo.gl/kVwB79 Follow us on Facebook - https://goo.gl/iAhPDJ Follow Dr Gaurav Garg on Facebook - https://goo.gl/xqLaQm UPSC/IAS past papers questions - https://goo.gl/F5gyWH SSC CGL + IBPS Quantitative tricks - https://goo.gl/C6d9n8 English Vocabulary - https://goo.gl/G9e04H Reasoning tricks for Bank PO + SSC CGL- https://goo.gl/a68WRN Error spotting / Sentence correction https://goo.gl/6RbdjC Static GK complete- https://goo.gl/kB0uAo Complete GK + Current Affairs for all exams- https://goo.gl/MKEoLy World History - UPSC / IAS - https://goo.gl/kwU9jC Learn English for SSC CGL, Bank PO https://goo.gl/MoL2it Science and Technology for UPSC/IAS - https://goo.gl/Jm4h8j Philosophy for UPSC/IAS - https://goo.gl/FH9p3n Yojana Magazine analysis -https://goo.gl/8oK1gy History for SSC CGL + Railways NTPC - https://goo.gl/7939eV
Views: 25904 Study IQ education
Elder In The Making | Episode 5: A Broken Treaty
 
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What follows from the treaty signing is a genocide in slow motion. Elder Narcisse Blood shares his story growing up in residential school and the person he has become. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Connect with us: Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/optiklocal/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/optiklocal
Views: 7444 STORYHIVE
Think Indigenous 11 Dr Pam Palmater_March 20 2015
 
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Dr. Pam Palmater, Ryerson University
Views: 2261 Usask
Cabinet nod for draft law allowing 100% foreign investment in all sectors
 
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*Non-Qatari investors may own up to 49% in Qatari listed companies *Law provides attractive incentives to investors The Cabinet on Wednesday took the necessary measures to issue a draft law that aims to attract non-Qatari capital to the country and promote economic development, after reviewing the Advisory Council’s recommendations on the matter. The decision was taken at the Cabinet’s weekly meeting, the official Qatar News Agency (QNA) reported. The draft legislation was prepared to replace Law No 13 of 2000 regulating the investment of non-Qatari capital in the country’s economic activity. The draft law stipulates that non-Qatari investors “may invest in all economic sectors up to 100% of the capital, and may own no more than 49% of the share capital of Qatari listed companies on the Qatar Exchange, after the approval of the Ministry of Economy and Commerce on the percentage proposed in the company's memorandum of association and articles of association”, the report states. They may also hold a percentage exceeding the mentioned percentage with the approval of the Cabinet upon a proposal by the minister concerned. “The draft law contains many investment incentives. The Cabinet may, on the proposal of the minister, grant the investment projects incentives and benefits in addition to what is provided for in this law,” QNA said. Earlier this month, the Advisory Council approved the draft law and decided to forward its recommendations to the Cabinet after discussing the report of the Financial and Economic Affairs Committee on the legislation. Previously, HE the Minister of Economy and Commerce Sheikh Ahmed bin Jassim bin Mohamed al-Thani had stressed that the draft law on organising foreign investment was meant to attract foreign capital in all economic and commercial activities and sectors, thereby helping foreign capital inflow, which would push forward the country's economic development. He had said implementation of the draft law, approved by the Council of Ministers at its first regular meeting of 2018, is in accordance with the directives of His Highness the Amir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad al-Thani. After HE the Prime Minister Sheikh Abdullah bin Nasser bin Khalifa al-Thani chaired the Cabinet meeting at the Emiri Diwan yesterday, HE the Minister of Justice and Acting Minister of State for Cabinet Affairs Dr Hassan bin Lahdan al-Hassan al-Mohannadi said the Cabinet also gave its nod to a draft law amending some provisions of Law No 21 of 2015 regulating the entry and exit of expatriates and their residency, and decided to refer it to the Advisory Council. The meeting also approved a draft law on the mortgage of movable property. The draft legislation aims to enable companies and individuals to obtain bank loans by mortgaging of movable property, and to contribute to reducing the cost of loans in order to support small and medium enterprises and their contribution to the national economy. The Cabinet also gave its nod to accession to the Agre
Universal Community Trust - Memorandum of Understanding
 
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A video recording for posterity of the Memorandum of Understanding between HM Government and the indigenous, independent, sovereign nations standing under Universal Community Trust [UCT]. Implicit recognition of Sovereignty: http://self-realisation.com/self-determination/161/ Treaty of Universal Community Trust: http://self-realisation.com/self-determination/treaty-of-universal-community-trust/ International Law & Convention Downloads: http://self-realisation.com/self-determination/international-law-convention-downloads/ http://self-realisation.com/category/self-determination/ For educational purposes only.
Views: 1795 The Bernician
National Chief Perry Bellegarde - Canada 2020 Aboriginal Peoples and Economic Development
 
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Canada 2020 Event - Aboriginal Peoples and Economic Development
Understanding the Definition and Scope of the Duty to Consult....
 
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Understanding the Definition and Scope of the Duty to Consult and Accommodate Today and How It Impacts You Daniel Pagowski Legal Counsel‚ Department of Justice Aboriginal Law and Strategic Police Christopher Devlin Partner Devlin Gailus Barristers & Solicitors Sandra Gogal Partner Miller Thomson LLP How have recent case law developments shed light on the basic questions, such as: What is the scope of the duty to consult? When is the duty triggered? What is included in "contemplated Crown conduct"? How much of the duty can be delegated a) to municipalities? b) to proponents? How much of what proponents do, goes towards the discharge of the Crown's duty? How are Rio Tinto Alcan Inc. v. Carrier Sekani Tribal Council and Adams Lake Indian Band v. British Columbia being applied by lower courts? Clarifying the role of regulatory bodies with respect to the duty to consult Looking at how the B.C. Court of Appeal decision in West Moberly First Nations v. British Columbia (Chief Inspector of Mines) has further shaped the Crown's duty to consult with respect to past impacts and cumulative effects, and the issue of Crown accommodation Understanding how the recent trend towards complex partnership agreements is affecting accommodation by the Crown There have been developments since last year to the "definition and scope" of the duty to consult. Ensure you get all the crucial updates at The Canadian Institute's 7th Annual Forum on Aboriginal Law, Consultation & Accommodation on February 20-21, 2013 View the list of speakers, program agenda and register at www.CanadianInstitute.com/AboriginalLaw
Gun control Via UN Treaty
 
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Gun rights advocates fear U.N. treaty will lead to U.S. registry With the Obama administration supporting the final treaty draft
Views: 82 Neil Gibbs
INDIA: FOREIGN MINISTER NUCLEAR TEST BAN TREATY PRESS CONFERENCE
 
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English/Nat The Indian Foreign Minister has accused the West of double standards over a proposed nuclear test ban treaty. Speaking in New Delhi on Thursday, Inder Kumar Gujral said that while the text had been modified to accommodate China, negotiators paid scant attention to India's concerns. In his first detailed statement since India blocked the nuclear test ban treaty in Geneva, Foreign Minister Gujral attempted to shift the blame on to the West's shoulders. India, he said, would not have blocked the treaty if Western nuclear powers hadn't insisted on a clause that made the treaty useless without New Delhi's consent. A last minute addition to the draft treaty sought to force nuclear threshold states India, Pakistan and Israel into signing. Gujral accused the West of bullying tactics. SOUNDBITE: (English) "After we announced our decision that we could not subscribe to this draft treaty, the Article on Entry into Force was modified suddenly with the clear aim of imposing obligations on India. This was at the insistence of a small number of countries. Such a provision is unprecedented in the treaty negotiating practice and contrary to international legal norms. It denies India its sovereign right of exercise of consent and contains an element of implied coercion." SUPER CAPTION: Inder Kumar Gujral, Indian Foreign Minister Gujral also accused the West of double standards. He said it had appeased China while paying scant attention to his country's concerns. SOUNDBITE: (English) "We were told that the text could not be modified, but as we have seen, the draft text has been modified to accommodate one country's concerns. If this change had not been introduced, or the entry into force provisions amended to address our concerns, we would have stood aside and let the draft text be adopted by those who support it. But this attempt at coercion has left us no choice but to indicate our opposition to the draft text." SUPER CAPTION: Inder Kumar Gujral, Indian Foreign Minister India has refused to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty after the five nuclear powers - the United States, Russia, France, Britain and China - refused to commit themselves to a timetable for eliminating their arsenals. India says it can't sign away the right to make nuclear weapons because it is trapped in a three-cornered arms race in the Asian subcontinent. The country's political parties are united on the issue. Commentators point out that India has to keep up with China and Pakistan. SOUNDBITE: (English) "India did not go for nuclear weaponisation in spite of the fact that all around India there has been proliferation of nuclear weapons and missile systems. So India has come under pressure. In spite of that it has shown restraint, but it can't ignore its security interests." SUPER CAPTION: KC Pant, Former Indian Defence Minister India exploded a nuclear bomb 22 years ago, but insists that it does not have a cache of nuclear warheads that can be fitted to sophisticated missiles. Pakistan, fearing for its security, has refused to sign unless India endorses the treaty. You can license this story through AP Archive: http://www.aparchive.com/metadata/youtube/5b09d3180b24f3c0884a6ebbf5dc56aa Find out more about AP Archive: http://www.aparchive.com/HowWeWork
Views: 107 AP Archive
North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949
 
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Article 1 The Parties undertake, as set forth in the Charter of the United Nations, to settle any international dispute in which they may be involved by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security and justice are not endangered, and to refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations. Article 2 The Parties will contribute toward the further development of peaceful and friendly international relations by strengthening their free institutions, by bringing about a better understanding of the principles upon which these institutions are founded, and by promoting conditions of stability and well-being. They will seek to eliminate conflict in their international economic policies and will encourage economic collaboration between any or all of them. Article 3 In order more effectively to achieve the objectives of this Treaty, the Parties, separately and jointly, by means of continuous and effective self-help and mutual aid, will maintain and develop their individual and collective capacity to resist armed attack. Article 4 The Parties will consult together whenever, in the opinion of any of them, the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of the Parties is threatened. Article 5 The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defence recognised by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area. Any such armed attack and all measures taken as a result thereof shall immediately be reported to the Security Council. Such measures shall be terminated when the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to restore and maintain international peace and security. Article 6 [1]For the purpose of Article 5, an armed attack on one or more of the Parties is deemed to include an armed attack: on the territory of any of the Parties in Europe or North America, on the Algerian Departments of France [2], on the territory of or on the Islands under the jurisdiction of any of the Parties in the North Atlantic area north of the Tropic of Cancer; on the forces, vessels, or aircraft of any of the Parties, when in or over these territories or any other area in Europe in which occupation forces of any of the Parties were stationed on the date when the Treaty entered into force or the Mediterranean Sea or the North Atlantic area north of the Tropic of Cancer. Article 7 This Treaty does not affect, and shall not be interpreted as affecting in any way the rights and obligations under the Charter of the Parties which are members of the United Nations, or the primary responsibility of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security. Article 8 Each Party declares that none of the international engagements now in force between it and any other of the Parties or any third State is in conflict with the provisions of this Treaty, and undertakes not to enter into any international engagement in conflict with this Treaty. Article 9 The Parties hereby establish a Council, on which each of them shall be represented, to consider matters concerning the implementation of this Treaty. The Council shall be so organised as to be able to meet promptly at any time. The Council shall set up such subsidiary bodies as may be necessary; in particular it shall establish immediately a defence committee which shall recommend measures for the implementation of Articles 3 and 5. Article 10 The Parties may, by unanimous agreement, invite any other European State in a position to further the principles of this Treaty and to contribute to the security of the North Atlantic area to accede to this Treaty. Any State so invited may become a Party to the Treaty by depositing its instrument of accession with the Government of the United States of America. The Government of the United States of America will inform each of the Parties of the deposit of each such instrument of accession. http://ccmixter.org/content/cdk/cdk_-_Silence_Await.mp3 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Views: 460 Paul Gilbert
US holds key to closing loopholes in Arms Trade Treaty
 
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After three weeks of talks to hammer out a deal at the UN in New York, a draft treaty text was published on Tuesday 24 July 2012. Governments will now enter into three days of intense negotiations as they look to reach an agreement by Friday. Major loopholes in the draft text include ammunition not being subject to tight decision-making controls, an array of weapons, munitions and related equipment not being covered, as well as the treaty only applying to the international trade of conventional arms instead of all international transfers including gifts and aid. Verity Coyle of Amnesty International UK reports back from NYC about the role states such as USA and China have in these last few days of negotiation for a strong and robust Arms Trade Treaty. You can follow Verity on Twitter here: http://twitter.com/veritycoyle/
Views: 1106 Amnesty International
Understanding Aboriginal Identity
 
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Understanding Aboriginal Identity explores the complex issue of self-identification for Aboriginal people. Today, Aboriginal identity remains inextricably linked with past government legislation and the continued stereotyping of Aboriginal people in the media and Canadian history. From a Metis farm in rural Alberta, to the offices of Canada’s leading scholars, Understanding Aboriginal Identity examines the factors that shape who we are. To order this video please go to www.bearpaweducation.ca/videos
Views: 60070 BearPaw Legal
The Constitution, the Articles, and Federalism: Crash Course US History #8
 
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In which John Green teaches you about the United States Constitution. During and after the American Revolutionary War, the government of the new country operated under the Articles of Confederation. While these Articles got the young nation through its war with England, they weren't of much use when it came to running a country. So, the founding fathers decided try their hand at nation-building, and they created the Constitution of the United States, which you may remember as the one that says We The People at the top. John will tell you how the convention came together, some of the compromises that had to be made to pass this thing, and why it's very lucky that the framers installed a somewhat reasonable process for making changes to the thing. You'll learn about Shays' Rebellion, the Federalist Papers, the elite vs rabble dynamic of the houses of congress, and start to find out just what an anti-federalist is. Hey teachers and students - Check out CommonLit's free collection of reading passages and curriculum resources to learn more about the events of this episode.Founding Fathers debated over how to govern the new nation, beginning with the Articles of Confederation: https://www.commonlit.org/texts/articles-of-confederation When the Founding Fathers finally wrote the Constitution, they realized that they needed to add The Bill of Rights to get citizens on board with the new government: https://www.commonlit.org/texts/the-bill-of-rights Follow us: http://www.twitter.com/thecrashcourse http://www.twitter.com/realjohngreen http://www.twitter.com/raoulmeyer http://www.twitter.com/crashcoursestan http://www.twitter.com/saysdanica http://www.twitter.com/thoughtbubbler Support CrashCourse on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/crashcourse
Views: 4096363 CrashCourse
Dene language lessons
 
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Views: 9035 Allan Adam
What is SELF-EXECUTING RIGHT? What does SELF-EXECUTING RIGHT mean? SELF-EXECUTING RIGHT meaning
 
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What is SELF-EXECUTING RIGHT? What does SELF-EXECUTING RIGHT mean? SELF-EXECUTING RIGHT meaning - SELF-EXECUTING RIGHT definition - SELF-EXECUTING RIGHT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Self-executing rights in international human rights law are rights that are formulated in such a way that one can deduce that it was the purpose to create international laws that citizens can invoke directly in their national courts. Self-executing rights, or directly applicable rights, are rights which, from the viewpoint of international law, do not require transformation into national law. They are binding as such and national judges can apply them as such, as if they were national rules. From the viewpoint of national law, it may be required that all international law be incorporated into national law before becoming valid. This depends on the national legal tradition. In order to decide whether a rule is self-executing or not, one must only look at the rule in question. National traditions do not count. A rule that says that states should guarantee freedom of expression to its citizens is self-executing. A rule that says that states should take all the necessary measures to create enough employment is not. Non-self-executing rules of international law only impose the obligation on states to take measures and to create or alter legislation. Citizens or national judges cannot invoke these rules (and demand employment as in the previous example) in a national court. This means that international law that is not self-executing must be transformed into national law in order to take effect. The priority of international law remains a fact whether this law is or is not self-executing. A state cannot invoke its national law as a reason not to respect its international obligations. In case of non-self-executing rules, it is obliged to change its national law or to take certain measures. It violates international law if it does not do so. In this case, a national judge can only decide that their state should modify national law or take certain measures. They cannot invalidate national law that contradicts non-self-executing international law. They can only declare national law null and void if it contradicts self-executing international rights. Most human rights contained in the main human rights treaties are self-executing and can be invoked by individuals in a national courtroom, although this is the case more for civil rights than for economic and social rights.
Views: 208 The Audiopedia
Boris Barnstorms Brexit but Falls Short of Hammering the PM!
 
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PLEASE SUPPORT MY YOUTUBE WORK ON PATREON: http://bit.ly/2oUVQfm FACEBOOK: @JeffTaylorBrexit Boris Johnson falls short of directly criticising Theresa May. But he does say that over the last 18 months it is as if a fog of self doubt has descended over the government. LIKE THIS? PLEASE SHARE IT using the url - https://youtu.be/pUfMdWVM7jA *SUBSCRIBE* to Jeff Taylor Here: https://goo.gl/NyzUPo How to *SUPERCHARGE* your YouTube videos - start for FREE: http://bit.ly/2vbl9z2 Boris Johnson eventually got to make his personal statement at about three o'clock this afternoon. This would usually have taken place straight after PMQs at a little after half twelve, but for some reason there was a lot of urgent business that suddenly cropped up that kept him at arm's length from both the dispatch box and the PMs half hour Q&A session. And talking of PMQs, a couple of the Theresa's own MPs niggled the her a bit. First the Tory Brexiteer Andrea Jenkyns, the one who had recently received veiled threats over campaign funding from Tory central, asked: "Can the Prime Minister inform the house at what point it was decided Brexit means Remain." Which to be fair, is a very good question and well asked. And the reply of - it never did because Brexit still means Brexit - won't wash with any true Brexiteer. And then later the recently resigned David Davis asked the PM if she would publish the documents that he had recently been working on as Brexit secretary once they were completed. "The Department for Exiting the European Union - he said - carried out a study of all of the previous free trade deals that the European Union has done in order to create a draft free trade deal which was based solely on European precedent. "The department, until I left at least, was working on a legal text of such a draft treaty as one fall back option in the current negotiation. "Would she agree to publish that text when it's complete?" But the reply was that she wanted a bespoke deal for the UK not an amalgam of previous deals. So I take that as a no and as an avenue to now remain unexplored. Anyway, back to Boris. In a strong resignation personal statement, the former Foreign Secretary said that the PM's Lancaster House vision had never been translated into a negotiating position or an offer to Brussels. In fact he said it became taboo to suggest technical fixes. He then went on to place the Lancaster House speech alongside the Chequers proposals and pointed out the stark truths. Lancaster house said that laws will once again be made in Westminster, while Chequers talks about harmonisation with the EU and a 'common rule book'. Lancaster House says it would be wrong to have to obey EU regulations with no say on what those rules are, but Chequers - he said - now makes us rules takers. Lancaster House says we won't be half in or half out, but Chequers keeps us in lock-step with so much of the EU, with disputes ultimately coming under ECJ jurisdiction. We are volunteering for economic vassalage, he said, calling the Chequers plan 'miserable' and urging a return to the 'glorious' vision of Lancaster House. And talking of rocket scientists. In a fantastically welcome statement Sam Gyimah, the Science and Universities Minister has announced the building of a UK satellite launch station in Northern Scotland and also put an extremely strong case for the UK to launch its own global satellite navigation system should the EU take what the minister called an 'irrational' position and kick us out of the Galileo project. In fact he said, speaking at the House of Commons dispatch box, should the EU take this path of denying UK access to Galileo, it would be punishing itself with huge costs, project delays and the loss of invaluable technical expertise. He also pointed out how good this would be for the UK science industry as a whole and that there would be deeper collaboration with NASA. Carol Monaghan of the SNP welcomed the news of the new space port to be constructed in Scotland saying that it will add to the 18% of the UK space industry that Scotland is currently host to. And in answer to a questions the minister said that we will be in a position to launch small satellites from the early 2020s. The Lib Dem MP for Caithness, Sutherland and Easter Ross, Jamie Stone, also welcomed the news that the launch site would be placed in his constituency saying it would give a 'boost' for the local economy - I know I can hear the groans. But it gets worse, the minister replied that he was pleased at the 'big blast' that Sutherland was getting from this announcement. So, please let us all know what you think by leaving a comment below. Thank you for watching. Sources: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5958129/Conservative-chairman-threatened-pull-funding-Andrea-Jenkyns-Brexit.html https://www.change.org/p/petition-to-1922-committee-for-motion-of-no-confidence-in-mrs-may
Views: 3991 Jeff Taylor
Wahkohtowin: Cree Natural Law
 
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Discussions by four Cree elders; George Brertton, Fred Campiou, Isaac Chamakese and William Dreaver, give insight into the differences between Canadian law and Cree Natural Law and why Natural Law is needed in contemporary society. Wahkohtowin means "everything is related." It is one of the basic principles of Cree Natural Law passed through language, song, prayer, and storytelling. The elders explain that by following the teachings of Wahkohtowin individuals, communities and societies are healthier.
Views: 26138 BearPaw Legal
Is Canadian Legalized Cannabis In Jeopardy?
 
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Does a United Nations drug treaty threaten whether Canada will be able to legalize cannabis by July 1st, 2018? ===================== Support Us On Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/therationalnational Follow David Doel at http://twitter.com/DavidDoel Follow The Rational National at http://twitter.com/TRNshow ===================== Sources: https://www.theglobeandmail.com///news/politics/opposition-experts-urge-feds-to-share-plans-on-un-drug-treaties/article35557613/?cmpid=rss1&click=sf_globe https://www.civilized.life/articles/despite-treaties-justin-trudeau-could-go-ahead-with-legalization/ http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2017/02/international-laws-trump-muslim-ban-breaking-170202135132664.html
Views: 1596 The Rational National
Can Brexit be finished in two years? – Inside Story
 
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After more than ten months of posturing and speculation from both sides Britain has formally invoked Article 50 of the EU treaty - triggering at least two-years of talks and, ultimately, its departure from the Union. This puts both sides into uncharted territory: no member state has ever left the EU before. EU leaders gathered in Malta Thursday to flesh out their strategy for the talks ahead. EU President Donald Tusk is expected to present his draft Brexit negotiating guidelines on Friday. British Prime Minister Theresa May says she wants the initial negotiations to include both Britain's exit from the bloc and its future trading relationship. But some within the EU disagree, saying the future Britain-EU relationship cannot be discussed until the terms of Britain's exit are settled. And all of this has to happen in a two-year time frame that looks increasingly short. So, can Brexit actually be negotiated in just two years? What happens if it can't? Presenter: Folly Bah Thibault Guests: Steven Peers - Law Professor, University of Essex. Maria Demertzis - Deputy Director, Bruegel (a Brussels-based think tank). Steve Keen - Head of the School of Economics, History & Politics, Kingston University London. - Subscribe to our channel: http://aje.io/AJSubscribe - Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/AJEnglish - Find us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/aljazeera - Check our website: http://www.aljazeera.com/
Views: 8588 Al Jazeera English
What Is A Law Citation?
 
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For more information 25 may 2017 this online guide will help you with legal citation for the most common situations, and should be sufficient research writing courses 2 jun a similar set of conventions is used when cite cases in your assignments using australian to. Basic legal citation cornell university. A paper commonly used in various courts such as a probate, matrimonial, or traffic court that is served upon an individual to notify him her he 27 feb 2003 opurposes of legal citation otypes principles olevels mastery ocitation transition o 2 jun 2017 similar set conventions when you cite cases your assignments using the australian guide. Because writing by lawyers and judges is so dependent on such references, it a language of abbreviations special terms introduction to basic legal citation (online ed. The most common sources of authority cited are court decisions (cases), statutes, regulations, government documents, treaties, and scholarly writing what is legal citation? It a standard language that allows one writer to refer authorities with sufficient precision generality others can follow the references. It is essential that citations to legal materials follow a standard format so anyone using law library may find the citation. Legal citation is the practice of crediting and referring to authoritative documents sources. Introduction to basic legal citation cali. Legal citation wikipedia legal wikipedia en. For more information 30 may 2013 the citation examples are based on 7th edition of canadian guide to uniform legal (the mcgill guide), as adapted by a is reference authorities and precedents such statutes, citations used in arguments courts, textbooks, law review articles s i l cworking draft silcmanual standard indian an effort lawyers academicians 1 jun 2017 confusingly these look like report but consist year, court abbreviation (for example ewca civ) then case 9 sep 2014 neutral (mcgill guide, 3. 2016) by peter wthis work first appeared in 1993. Wikipedia wiki legal_citation url? Q webcache. Legal citation wikipediabasic legal information institute cornell university. Background there is a distinct case citation format used within the jurisdiction by citation1) notice to appear in court due probable commission of minor crime such as traffic violation, drinking liquor park where prohibited, reference legal authority. How to cite a case legal citation guide subject guides at murdoch citing materials in apa style csu stanislaus library. Case citations law legal research guide case guides at citation the canadian and writing. Basic legal citation cornell university#1 how to read a locating information in definition of. Standard indian legal citation working draft chanakya national case united kingdom law oxford libguides at research citations the neutral. Neutral citations are assigned by the courts as they render their judgments 29 may 2017 legal citation guide how to cite a case point students pertinent sections of australian (3 rd ed
Views: 20 Lanora Hurn Tipz
FULL INTERVIEW: VAL NAPOLEON + REBECCA JOHNSON (PART 1)
 
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Full interview: Val Napoleon & Rebecca Johnson (part 1) Keywords: defining Indigenous law; interpretation & law; challenging settler narratives of Indigenous law; law & stories; Indigenous law as living, practical resources; teaching Indigenous law; Indigenous & settler relations; reconciliation. This video is of the first half of an interview with Dr. Val Napoleon (Cree, Director of the Indigenous Law Research Unit, Faculty of Law, University of Victoria) and Dr. Rebecca Johnson (Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Victoria). The interview was done as part of a larger project to create three video shorts about Indigenous law. This full interview is included online as part of an archive, for viewers who want to watch the full interview that took place. For more information about the project, and to watch the video shorts that feature parts of Dr. Napoleon and Dr. Johnson’s interview, go to http://www.uvic.ca/law/about/indigenous/indigenouslawresearchunit/ This videos were created as part of the Indigenous Law Video On Demand project, for the Indigenous Law Research Unit in the Faculty of Law, University of Victoria. The project included Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in collaboration and conversation. The video series was created by Kamala Todd (Indigenous City Media, Director & Editor), Emily Snyder (Project Lead & Producer), and Renée McBeth (Associate Producer). The project was supported by a grant from the .CA Community Investment Program and ILRU. © Indigenous Law Research Unit, 2015
FULL STORY: Failing Canada’s First Nations Children
 
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Canadian kids from isolated communities forced to move away from their families – just to go to school. For more info, please go to www.global16x9.com.
Views: 166820 16x9onglobal
Farage vs Commissioner Timmermans: The EU's iron fist is reserved for its critics
 
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Descriptionhttp://www.ukipmeps.org | http://www.ukip.org • European Parliament, Brussels, 28 February 2018 • Nigel Farage MEP, UK Independence Party (UKIP), President of the Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy Group (EFDD) in the European Parliament - http://www.nigelfaragemep.co.uk @Nigel_Farage • Debate: Commission decision to activate Article 7 (1) TEU as regards the situation in Poland Commission statement [2018/2541(RSP)] One round of political group speakers Note: Article 7 TEU aims at ensuring that all EU countries respect the common values of the EU, including the rule of law. The preventive mechanism of Article 7(1) TEU can be activated only in case of a ’clear risk of a serious breach’ and the sanctioning mechanism of Article 7(2) TEU only in case of a ’serious and persistent breach by a Member State’ of the values set out in Article 2. The preventive mechanism allows the Council to give the EU country concerned a warning before a ’serious breach’ has actually materialised. The sanctioning mechanism allows the Council to suspend certain rights deriving from the application of the treaties to the EU country in question, including the voting rights of that country in the Council. In that case the ’serious breach’ must have persisted for some time. (from EUR Lex http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=LEGISSUM%3Al33500) .................... • Video: EbS (European Parliament) .................................. • EU Member States: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Spain, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, United Kingdom
Views: 46258 europarl
Can Russia Interfere in Indian elections? - Analysis - भारत और ब्राजील के निशाना चुनाव
 
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Views: 104430 Study IQ education
American History - Part 090 - Lincoln - Inauguration Address - The Union must be preserved
 
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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English. By February first, 1861, seven Southern states had withdrawn from the United States of America. They created their own independent nation -- the Confederate States of America. The South seceded because Abraham Lincoln, a Republican, had been elected President. Southerners believed he would support a constitutional ban on slavery. They were afraid their way of life would soon end. While Lincoln waited for inauguration day, he chose the members of his cabinet. He wanted men representing all opposing groups in the Republican Party. He hoped this would unite the party and give him support in the difficult years ahead. Lincoln chose William Seward as secretary of state, Salmon Chase as Treasury secretary, Gideon Welles as Navy secretary and Montgomery Blair as postmaster general. The inaugural ceremony took place outside the Capitol building. Lincoln was to give his inaugural speech before being sworn-in. This is what Lincoln said "There seems to be some fear among the people of the Southern states, that because a Republican administration is coming to power, their property and their peace and personal security are threatened. There has never been any reasonable cause for such fears. In fact, much evidence to the contrary has existed, open to their inspection. It is found in nearly all my published speeches. "In one of those speeches, I declared that I had no purpose -- directly or indirectly -- to interfere with the institution of slavery in the states where it exists. I said I believed I had no legal right to do so, and no wish to do so. "This statement is still true. I can only say that the property, peace, and security of no part of the country are to be in any way endangered by the incoming administration." Lincoln noted that seventy-two years had passed since the first President was inaugurated. Since then, he said, 15 men had led the nation through many dangers, generally with great success. He went "I now begin the same job under great difficulty. The breaking up of the federal Union -- before, only threatened -- now, is attempted. I believe that under universal law and the Constitution, the Union of these states is permanent. This is shown by the history of the Union itself. "The Union is much older than the Constitution. It was formed, in fact, by the Articles of Association in 1774. It was continued by the Declaration of Independence in 1776. It grew further under the Articles of Confederation in 1778. And finally, in 1787, one of the declared reasons for establishing the Constitution of the United States was to form 'a more perfect Union'. "I therefore believe that, in view of the Constitution and the laws, the Union is not broken. I shall make sure, as the Constitution orders me to do, that the laws of the Union are obeyed in all the states. In doing this, there needs to be no bloodshed or violence. And there shall be none, unless it be forced upon the national government. One part of the country, he said, believes slavery is right and should be extended. The other part believes slavery is wrong and should not be extended. This, he said, was the only important dispute. Lincoln admitted that, even if the dispute could be settled peacefully, there were those who wanted to see the Union destroyed. He said his words were not meant for them. They were meant only for those people who really loved the Union. He said "Physically speaking, we cannot separate. We cannot remove our sections from each other nor build an impassable wall between them. A husband and wife may be divorced and go away from or out of the reach of each other. But the different parts of our country cannot do this. They must remain face to face. And relations -- friendly or hostile -- must continue between them. "Is it possible to make those relations better after separation than before. Can aliens make treaties easier than friends can make laws. Can treaties be more faithfully enforced between aliens than laws can be enforced among friends. "My countrymen -- one and all -- think calmly and well upon this subject. Nothing valuable can be lost by taking time. "In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen -- and not in mine -- is the great issue of civil war. The government will not attack you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. "We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though emotion may have damaged them, it must not break our ties of love." Abraham Lincoln then placed his hand on the Christian holy book, the Bible. The Chief Justice of the United States then spoke the Presidential oath. Lincoln repeated the words. And the United States had a new President. thanks to manything.org for audio and text This is a VOA product and is in the public domain
Views: 4252 ListenAndReadAlong

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