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Horizontal gene transfer | Transformation, Transduction and Conjugation
 
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Transformation, Transduction and Conjugation - This lecture explains about the difference between conjugation, transformation and transduction. It explains the process of gene exchange between bacteria via horizontal gene transfer also known as lateral gene transfer. Conjugation - gene exchange between bacteria by physical contact through the formation of conjugation tube. Transformation - the transfer of DNA fragments through bacterial uptake Transduction - the transfer of genes through the bacteriophage particles. Transformation involves uptake of short fragments of naked DNA by naturally transformable bacteria. Transduction involves transfer of DNA from one bacterium into another via bacteriophages. Conjugation involves transfer of DNA via sexual pilus and requires cell –to-cell contact. DNA fragments that contain resistance genes from resistant donors can then make previously susceptible bacteria express resistance as coded by these newly acquired resistance genes. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching
Views: 98338 Shomu's Biology
Bacterial Reproduction & Exchanges of Genetic Material
 
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Details of Binary Fission, Bacterial Conjugation, Transformation, and Transduction
Views: 181320 Craig Savage
Bacterial Transformation
 
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In this video, Biology Professor (Twitter: @DrWhitneyHolden) discusses the process of transformation in bacteria, a cool way that bacteria can obtain foreign DNA for their own use. For information on other mechanisms that bacteria use to take up foreign DNA, see Biology Professor's videos on conjugation (http://youtu.be/YycVGqBs1p0) and transduction (http://youtu.be/uJH1G7MDC5E). Great for MCAT Biology Review! For more information on the experiments that led Frederick Griffith to discover transformation: visit this Wikipedia article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Griffith%27s_experiment
Views: 102996 Biology Professor
Conjugation, Transformation and Transduction
 
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Donate here: http://www.aklectures.com/donate.php Website video link: http://www.aklectures.com/lecture/conjugation-transformation-and-transduction Facebook link: https://www.facebook.com/aklectures Website link: http://www.aklectures.com
Views: 86373 AK LECTURES
Genetic Transfer
 
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NOT MY VIDEO. GOT IT FROM: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AYvX8tnCM9s&feature=related
Views: 39830 Andrew Boyd
What is GENETIC RECOMBINATION? What does GENETIC RECOMBINATION mean? GENETIC RECOMBINATION meaning
 
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What is GENETIC RECOMBINATION? What does GENETIC RECOMBINATION mean? GENETIC RECOMBINATION meaning - GENETIC RECOMBINATION definition - GENETIC RECOMBINATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Genetic recombination is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent. In eukaryotes, genetic recombination during meiosis can lead to a novel set of genetic information that can be passed on from the parents to the offspring. Most recombination is naturally occurring. During meiosis in eukaryotes, genetic recombination involves the pairing of homologous chromosomes. This may be followed by information transfer between the chromosomes. The information transfer may occur without physical exchange (a section of genetic material is copied from one chromosome to another, without the donating chromosome being changed) (see SDSA pathway in Figure); or by the breaking and rejoining of DNA strands, which forms new molecules of DNA (see DHJ pathway in Figure). Recombination may also occur during mitosis in eukaryotes where it ordinarily involves the two sister chromosomes formed after chromosomal replication. In this case, new combinations of alleles are not produced since the sister chromosomes are usually identical. In meiosis and mitosis, recombination occurs between similar molecules of DNA (homologs). In meiosis, non-sister homologous chromosomes pair with each other so that recombination characteristically occurs between non-sister homologues. In both meiotic and mitotic cells, recombination between homologous chromosomes is a common mechanism used in DNA repair. Genetic recombination and recombinational DNA repair also occurs in bacteria and archaea, which use asexual reproduction. Recombination can be artificially induced in laboratory (in vitro) settings, producing recombinant DNA for purposes including vaccine development. V(D)J recombination in organisms with an adaptive immune system is a type of site-specific genetic recombination that helps immune cells rapidly diversify to recognize and adapt to new pathogens.
Views: 1812 The Audiopedia
Transduction
 
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In this video, Biology Professor (Twitter: @DrWhitneyHolden) discusses the process of transduction in bacteria, a cool way that bacteria can obtain foreign DNA for their own use that involves infection of bacteria by a bacteriophage. For information on other mechanisms that bacteria use to take up foreign DNA, see Biology Professor's videos on conjugation (http://youtu.be/YycVGqBs1p0) and transformation (http://youtu.be/dKD19cXkWBw). Great for MCAT Biology Review!
Views: 80713 Biology Professor
Bacterial Conjugation - Hfr, f prime and f plasmid
 
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Bacterial conjunction lecture - This lecture explains about the different types of Bacterial conjunction mechanism including the following plasmid. It explains about five plasmid conjunction, for prime plasmid formation and it also explains the hfr conjunction in bacteria. Hfr strains are known as the high frequency strain. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching the Bacterial conjugation lecture
Views: 155884 Shomu's Biology
What is conjugation (genetic transfer) in bacteria? Why is it important?
 
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What is conjugation (genetic transfer) in bacteria? Why is it important? http://www.screenr.com/hec8
Views: 11819 rvssciencevideos2012
Bacterial Conjugation
 
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Views: 127271 Study Force
Bacterial Conjugation
 
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In this video, Biology Professor (Twitter: @DrWhitneyHolden) discusses the process of transformation in bacteria, a cool way that bacteria can obtain foreign DNA for their own use with a cell structure called a sex pilus. For information on other mechanisms that bacteria use to take up foreign DNA, see Biology Professor's videos on transformation (http://youtu.be/dKD19cXkWBw) and transduction (http://youtu.be/uJH1G7MDC5E). Great for MCAT Biology Review!
Views: 95097 Biology Professor
Bacterial genetic recombination | Cells | MCAT | Khan Academy
 
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Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/cells/viruses/v/virus-structure-and-classification?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/cells/prokaryotes-bacteria/v/bacterial-characteristics-gram-staining?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat MCAT on Khan Academy: Go ahead and practice some passage-based questions! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s MCAT channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDkK5wqSuwDlJ3_nl3rgdiQ?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 93274 khanacademymedicine
The Mechanism of Transformation with Competent Cells
 
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Transformation is the process by which bacteria are made to take up exogenous DNA. Learn more about transformation and how it is used in cloning workflows. Learn more at https://www.neb.com/applications/cloning-and-synthetic-biology/transformation
Views: 120909 New England Biolabs
Genetic Recombination: Microbiology
 
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Introduction to Microbiology ~*~Hey! This video is a Study with Me Biology video about Genetic Recombination: #Conjugation, #Specialized Transduction, #Generalized Transduction, and #Transformation. Need help in microbiology? Contact me at [email protected] Was this video helpful? Feel free to subscribe, like, and comment! Get your FREE Micro Mini Course here 🔬 Microbiology Mini Course http://the-roc-a-strong-foundation.thinkific.com/courses/mini --------------------------------------------------------------------- Freshman Level 🔬 Microbiology Checklist http://eepurl.com/gaCagz 🔬 Microbiology E-Workbook http://the-roc-a-strong-foundation.thinkific.com/courses/book 🔬 Microbiology Mini Course http://the-roc-a-strong-foundation.thinkific.com/courses/mini Sophomore Level 🔬 Done-For-You Microbiology Study Program http://the-roc-a-strong-foundation.thinkific.com/courses/dfy Junior Level 🔬 Microbiology Study Program http://the-roc-a-strong-foundation.thinkific.com/courses/consult Senior Level 🔬 Microbiology Study Program (Full Package) http://the-roc-a-strong-foundation.thinkific.com/courses/full ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Facebook www.facebook.com/TheROCastrongfoundation/ Instagram https://www.instagram.com/microbiologytutor/ Twitter https://twitter.com/ROCstrgfndation --------------------------------------------------------------------- Hey! I’m so glad you made it here! My name is Rochelle Harris. I’m your microbiology tutor. I take you outside the box of traditional studying and introduce you to an interactive and repetitive method of studying, so that you will remember the material. I’ve helped students through my teach, study with, and test your knowledge study method and I’m ready to take your studying up a notch. Over the past 3 years I have developed a 4-step microbiology study method that will not only save you time but allow you to absorb and retain the information during your study time. When I don’t have my head in microbiology, I love to head over to the Santa Monica beach or chill in Burbank at a park. I have to confess, my guilty pleasure is a good romance, suspense, and mystery novel. --------------------------------------------------------------------- What I listen to… Worship Playlist https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLqGr3HGbS1ohzkV1_xVe1xiPbXWJTugbH --------------------------------------------------------------------- Business Inquiries [email protected]
Mom vs. Dad: What Did You Inherit?
 
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Learn more about your DNA by going to: https://www.23andme.com/ASAP Subscribe for weekly videos: http://bit.ly/asapsci Created by: Mitchell Moffit and Gregory Brown Written by: Amanda Edward, Rachel Salt, Greg Brown & Mitch Moffit Illustrated by: Max Simmons Edited by: Sel Ghebrehiwot FOLLOW US! Instagram and Twitter: @whalewatchmeplz and @mitchellmoffit Clickable: http://bit.ly/16F1jeC and http://bit.ly/15J7ube AsapINSTAGRAM: https://instagram.com/asapscience/ Facebook: http://facebook.com/AsapSCIENCE Twitter: http://twitter.com/AsapSCIENCE Tumblr: http://asapscience.tumblr.com SNAPCHAT US 'whalewatchmeplz' and 'pixelmitch' Created by Mitchell Moffit (twitter @mitchellmoffit) and Gregory Brown (twitter @whalewatchmeplz). Send us stuff! ASAPSCIENCE INC. P.O. Box 93, Toronto P Toronto, ON, M5S2S6 Further Reading/References: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629616303666?via%3Dihub https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/babies-paternal-resemblance/ https://www.nature.com/articles/srep45885 https://www.23andme.com/en-ca/gen101/origins/ http://anthro.palomar.edu/biobasis/bio_4.htm https://www.alnmag.com/news/2013/08/dad%E2%80%99s-genes-build-placentas http://news.cornell.edu/stories/2013/08/dad-s-genes-build-placentas-study-shows https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3696791/ https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/classical-genetics/sex-linkage-non-nuclear-chromosomal-mutations/a/sex-linkage-sex-determination-and-x-inactivation http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/basics/observable/ http://www.genesinlife.org/genetics-101/how-does-genetics-work/main-inheritance-patterns https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5308812/ http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v40/n11/abs/ng.228.html http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v40/n11/abs/ng.255.html https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/classical-genetics/sex-linkage-non-nuclear-chromosomal-mutations/a/x-inactivation https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/turner-syndrome http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/lab3/crossovr.html https://www.nature.com/scitable/definition/principle-of-independent-assortment-law-of-independent-302 http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/d-brief/2015/03/03/genetically-more-like-dad/#.WVejxITythE http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v47/n4/full/ng.3222.html https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/03/150302123253.htm https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/like-mother-like-daughter-the-science-says-so-too/ http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/49005/ http://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/do-you-share-more-genes-your-mother-or-your-father/ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167488913001092 http://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(12)01106-3?_returnURL=http%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0092867412011063%3Fshowall%3Dtrue http://www.mitocanada.org/about-mitochondrial-disease/how-is-mitochondrial-disease-inherited-2/ http://www.mitoaction.org/mito-faq https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9b7w2wJu7Eo https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/prader-willi-syndrome http://www.fpwr.ca/about-prader-willi-syndrome/ https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/angelman-syndrome Mom vs Dad Genetic Traits inherited Characteristics Y Chromosome X Chromosome Mitochondrial DNA Maternal Linked Disease Why Am I going Bald Male Colour Blindness Do babies look more like their fathers is intelligence inherited is depression inherited is depression genetic genetic facial features how DNA is inherited how ancestry works
Views: 1431663 AsapSCIENCE
DNA Exchange: Transformation, Conjugation & Transduction – Microbiology | Lecturio
 
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This video “DNA Exchange: Transformation, Conjugation & Transduction” is part of the Lecturio course “Microbiology” ► WATCH the complete course on http://lectur.io/bacteriadnaexchange ► LEARN ABOUT: - Bacteria exchange DNA - Transformation - DNA from donor - Conjugation - Transduction (viruses) ► THE PROF: Your lecturer is Prof. Dr. Vincent Racaniello. He is teaching microbiology and immunology at Columbia University in New York City. He is a leading expert in the research of viruses and human diseases. Therefore Racaniello has served on the editorial boards of scientific journals, such as the Journal of Virology or PLOS Pathogens. Furthermore he was the 2015 president of the American Society for Virology. Beyond that he is editor of an online virology blog and co-producer of the podcasts Netcast This Week in Virology, This Week in Parasitism and This Week in Microbiology. ► LECTURIO is your single-point resource for medical school: Study for your classes, USMLE Step 1, USMLE Step 2, MCAT or MBBS with video lectures by world-class professors, recall & USMLE-style questions and textbook articles. Create your free account now: http://lectur.io/bacteriadnaexchange ► INSTALL our free Lecturio app iTunes Store: https://app.adjust.com/z21zrf Play Store: https://app.adjust.com/b01fak ► READ TEXTBOOK ARTICLES related to this video: Biology for Physicians: The Basics of Medical Microbiology http://lectur.io/bacteriatypesarticle ► SUBSCRIBE to our YouTube channel: http://lectur.io/subscribe ► WATCH MORE ON YOUTUBE: http://lectur.io/playlists ► LET’S CONNECT: • Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lecturio.medical.education.videos • Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lecturio_medical_videos • Twitter: https://twitter.com/LecturioMed
Genetic Transfer - part 1
 
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Microbial populations achieve genetic diversity through horizontal gene transfer. Bacteria may transfer genes from one to another by conjugation, transformation, or transduction. Scientists often exploit these processes through recombinant DNA.
Views: 144795 Elias Haroun
Mechanisms that Increase Genetic Variation
 
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034 - Mechanisms that Increase Genetic Variation Paul Andersen describes mechanisms that increase the genetic variation within a population. He begins by discussing how horizontal transfer can move genetic material between bacteria. Transformation, transduction, and conjugation in bacteria are all included. He also explains how crossing over, random assortment, and random fertilization can maintain genetic variation i eukaryotes. He also explains how inbreeding can decrease the fitness of an individual. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: Boumphreyfr. English: Meiosis: Schematic Diagram of Crossover, June 2, 2009. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Meiosis_crossover.png. "File:Acrosome Reaction Diagram En.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Acrosome_reaction_diagram_en.svg. "File:Agar Plate with Colonies.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Agar_plate_with_colonies.jpg. "File:Basal Ganglia and Related Structures.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Basal_Ganglia_and_Related_Structures.svg. "File:Conjugation.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Conjugation.svg. "File:Coquina variation3.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, March 28, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Coquina_variation3.jpg&oldid=276893758. "File:DNA Orbit Animated Static Thumb.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DNA_orbit_animated_static_thumb.png. "File:Griffith Experiment.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Griffith_experiment.svg. "File:Horizontal-Gene-Transfer.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Horizontal-gene-transfer.jpg. "File:Juan de Miranda Carreno 002.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Juan_de_Miranda_Carreno_002.jpg. "File:Sky Spectral Karyotype.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sky_spectral_karyotype.png. "File:Transduction (genetics)en.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Transduction_(genetics)en.svg. Jakov, internationalization: PatríciaR Original image from NCBI; original vector version by. English: Overview of the Major Events in Meiosis (international Version). A: DNA Replication; B: Meiosis I; C: Meiosis II, March 4, 2009. File:MajorEventsInMeiosis variant.svg, which is a derivative work of an image found on NCBI. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MajorEventsInMeiosis_variant_int.svg. version, Original uploader was Lec CRP1 at en wikipedia Later. English: The Ancestry of King en:Charles II of Spain (1661-1700), February 1, 2008. Transferred from en.wikipedia. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Carlos_segundo80.png.
Views: 104253 Bozeman Science
DNA transformation in bacteria
 
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DNA transformation in bacteria - lecture explains the bacterial transformation process. http://shomusbiology.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching In molecular biology transformation is genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake, incorporation and expression of exogenous genetic material (exogenous DNA) from its surroundings and taken up through the cell membrane(s). Transformation occurs naturally in some species of bacteria, but it can also be effected by artificial means in other cells. For transformation to happen, bacteria must be in a state of competence, which might occur as a time-limited response to environmental conditions such as starvation and cell density. Transformation is one of three processes by which exogenous genetic material may be introduced into a bacterial cell, the other two being conjugation (transfer of genetic material between two bacterial cells in direct contact) and transduction (injection of foreign DNA by a bacteriophage virus into the host bacterium). "Transformation" may also be used to describe the insertion of new genetic material into nonbacterial cells, including animal and plant cells; however, because "transformation" has a special meaning in relation to animal cells, indicating progression to a cancerous state, the term should be avoided for animal cells when describing introduction of exogenous genetic material. Introduction of foreign DNA into eukaryotic cells is often called "transfection".[1] Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. © by original content developers of Wikipedia. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page Material source: Molecular Genetics of Bacteria Larry Snyder (Author), Joseph E. Peters (Author), Tina M. Henkin (Author), Wendy Champness (Author) Link: http://www.amazon.com/Molecular-Genetics-Bacteria-Larry-Snyder/dp/1555816274
Views: 52461 Shomu's Biology
Bacterial Conjugation - Transfer of the F Plasmid [HD Animation]
 
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Bacterial Conjugation - Transfer of the F Plasmid Animation ------------------------------- Please Like, comment, share and subscribe 👍🏻❤️
Views: 32695 McGraw-Hill Animations
Genes, Alleles and Loci on Chromosomes
 
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Donate here: http://www.aklectures.com/donate.php Website video link: http://www.aklectures.com/lecture/genes-alleles-and-loci-on-chromosomes Facebook link: https://www.facebook.com/aklectures Website link: http://www.aklectures.com
Views: 131553 AK LECTURES
Transformation
 
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For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ This video explains the transformation process in bacteria to exchange genetic materials via horizontal gene transfer. Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html
Views: 15824 Shomu's Biology
From DNA to protein - 3D
 
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This 3D animation shows how proteins are made in the cell from the information in the DNA code. To download the subtitles (.srt) for this site, please use the following link: https://goo.gl/Ew7l69 and for more information, please view the video and explore related resources on our site: http://www.yourgenome.org/video/from-dna-to-protein
Views: 4470025 yourgenome
Heredity: Crash Course Biology #9
 
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Hank and his brother John discuss heredity via the gross example of relative ear wax moistness. Crash Course Biology is now available on DVD! http://dftba.com/product/1av/CrashCourse-Biology-The-Complete-Series-DVD-Set Like CrashCourse on Facebook! http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Follow CrashCourse on Twitter! http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse This video uses sounds from Freesound.org, a list of which can be found, along with the REFERENCES for this episode, in the Google document here: http://dft.ba/-2dlR tags: crashcourse, science, biology, evolution, genetics, heredity, aristotle, bloodlines, gregor mendel, mendelian genetics, mendelian trait, classical genetics, chromosome, gene, polygenic, pleiotropic, allele, ear wax gene, somatic, diploid, gametes, sperm, egg, haploid, polyploid, dominance, dominant, recessive, heterozygous, homozygous, phenotype, punnett square, reginald c. punnett, sex-linked inheritance, autosome Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 3018308 CrashCourse
Antibiotic resistance and bacterial genetic exchange
 
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This work was prepared by the IISc Bangalore iGEM team as part of their project, PhageShift! This is the second of a 5 part mini series on phages, antibiotic resistance and all the other terms you would need to understand our project better! Follow this link to know more about PhageShift: http://2018.igem.org/Team:IISc-Bangalore
Views: 14 IISc iGEM
Gene Exchange
 
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A quick rundown of the diversity of mechanisms where nucleic acid can be obtained by cells either reciprocally or non-reciprocally.
Views: 98 BiologyasPoetry
Genetic Recombination and Gene Mapping
 
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how the frequency of recombination between linked genes can be used to determine the relative location of genes on a chromosome. Thomas Hunt Morgan and Alfred Strutevant used the fruit fly to develop a theory of chromosomal inheritance and discover crossing over. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "File:Drosophila Repleta Lateral.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 13, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Drosophila_repleta_lateral.jpg. "File:Morgan Crossover 1.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 13, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Morgan_crossover_1.jpg. "File:Thomas Hunt Morgan.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 13, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Thomas_Hunt_Morgan.jpg. "FlyBase," n.d. http://flybase.org/reports/FBgn0003975.html. spax89. Illustration of a Tobacco Pipe, 2009. Extracted from Media:Blason de la ville de Saint-Quentin-la-Poterie (30).svg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tobacco_pipe.svg.
Views: 661173 Bozeman Science
Gene transfer in Bacteria: Transformation, Transduction and Conjugation
 
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To view complete list of my lectures- https://goo.gl/A5Rtu5
Views: 3454 Online Study
Bacteria - Conjugation, Transformation, Transduction. NBDE/USMLE
 
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WEBSITE: https://www.passthedentalboards.com FREE occlusion document for NBDE: https://wp.me/P76wDv-7t FACEBOOK: https://www.facebook.com/PassTheDentalBoards SUBSCRIBE:https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCbFkz1rgQUG7radni0iXCbQ?sub_confirmation=1 WEBSITE: www.passthedentalboards.com Thanks for stopping by, make sure to check out the rest of my videos. Its all about passing the boards!! I am trying to make that as easy as possible by making these videos, Don't forget to comment, like, and subscribe for more info!
Views: 32474 Pass The Dental Boards
Microbiology Journal Club - Barriers to genetic exchange in Myxococcus
 
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The study of social behavior and self recognition in bacteria gives us a fascinating view into the complex social lives of these single-celled organisms. The bacterium Myxococcus xanthus exhibits a range of social behaviors, including predation on other bacteria and the formation of multicellular fruiting bodies under starvation conditions. In this paper, the authors explore genomic divergence in Myxococcus strains isolated from the same small patch of soil and present evidence of a barrier to genetic exchange. What does this mean for self/non-self discrimination in Myxococcus? Is this the beginnings of a speciation event? Join us April 25 at 3 pm to discuss! All are welcome. Link to join the Hangout will be posted at about 2:45 pm on April 25 at gplusmicrojc.wordpress.com.
bacterial transformation
 
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In molecular biology transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake, incorporation and expression of exogenous genetic material (exogenous DNA) from its surrounding and taken up through the cell membrane(s). Transformation occurs most commonly in bacteria and in some species occurs naturally. Transformation can also be effected by artificial means. Bacteria that are capable of being transformed, whether naturally or artificially, are called competent. Transformation is one of three processes by which exogenous genetic material may be introduced into bacterial cell, the other two being conjugation (transfer of genetic material between two bacterial cells in direct contact), and transduction (injection of foreign DNA by a bacteriophage into the host). Transformation may also used to describe the insertion of new genetic material into nonbacterial cells including animal and plant cells, however, because transformation has a special meaning in relation to animal cells indicating progression to a cancerous state, the term should be avoided for animal cells when describing introduction of exogenous genetic material. Introduction of foreign DNA into eukaryotic cells is usually called "transfection".
Views: 68514 zabaaz
Transformation in Bacteria
 
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Transformation in Bacteria
Views: 177158 Soner Efe
Generalized transduction vs Specialized Transduction
 
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Generalized transduction vs specialized transduction - lecture explains about the difference between generalized and specialized transduction. Generalised transduction is mediated by lytic phages where any DNA segment can be transferred by the virus and may not integrate the segment to the bacterial chromosome. while specialized transduction is a process where a fragment of bacterial DNA packaged inside the phage head that is transferred to another bacteria. Watch this video lecture to understand the fifference between generalized and specialized transduction. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching
Views: 97418 Shomu's Biology
Bacterial Conjugation and Transduction
 
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Bacterial DNA can pass from one cell to another through the processes of conjugation and transduction. © 2012 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/48203/bacteria
Acquiring new genes via bacterial conjugation
 
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#RHSBMS #PLTW students explain how bacteria acquire new genes via the process of conjugation, in preparation for a lab in which they'll provide 2 different strains of e.coli the chance to conjugate and pass antibiotic resistance to one another.
Views: 297 Heidi Hisrich
Site directed mutagenesis
 
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mutagenesis lecture - This lecture explains about the site directed mutagenesis including other techniques of mutagenesis like site specific recombination and transposition. Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology procedure that's used to make particular and intentional changes to the DNA sequence of a gene and any gene products. Site-directed mutagenesis is likely one of the major techniques in laboratory for introducing mutation into a DNA sequence. This video lecture deals with the mechanism and steps of site directed mutagenesis and the importance of side directed mutagenesis. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching
Views: 76790 Shomu's Biology
conjugation the transfer of chromosomal dna
 
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Chapter03_part_A Seeley’s Principles of Anatomy and Physiology (2nd edition 2012) A Courtesy of "Philip Tate"
Views: 2988 kven Venderson
DNA recombination basic
 
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DNA recombination process- lecture explains about the DNA recombination holiday junction & process. http://shomusbiology.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html Genetic recombination is the production of new combinations of alleles, encoding a novel set of genetic information, e.g., by the pairing of homologous chromosomes in meiosis, or by the breaking and rejoining of DNA strands, which forms new molecules of DNA. This last type of recombination can occur between similar molecules of DNA, as in the homologous recombination of chromosomal crossover, or dissimilar molecules, as in non-homologous end joining. V(D)J recombination in organisms with an adaptive immune system is a type of genetic recombination that helps immune cells rapidly diversify to recognize and adapt to new pathogens. Recombination is a common method of DNA repair in both bacteria and eukaryotes. In eukaryotes, recombination also occurs in meiosis, where it facilitates chromosomal crossover. The crossover process leads to offspring's having different combinations of genes from those of their parents, and can occasionally produce new chimeric alleles. The shuffling of genes brought about by genetic recombination is thought to have many advantages, as it is a major engine of genetic variation and also allows sexually reproducing organisms to avoid Muller's ratchet, in which the genomes of an asexual population accumulate deleterious mutations in an irreversible manner. Chromosomal crossover refers to recombination between the paired chromosomes inherited from each of one's parents, generally occurring during meiosis. During prophase I the four available chromatids are in tight formation with one another. While in this formation, homologous sites on two chromatids can mesh with one another, and may exchange genetic information.[1] Because recombination can occur with small probability at any location along chromosome, the frequency of recombination between two locations depends on their distance. Therefore, for genes sufficiently distant on the same chromosome the amount of crossover is high enough to destroy the correlation between alleles. Tracking the movement of genes during crossovers has proven quite useful to geneticists. Because two genes that are close together are less likely to become separated than genes that are farther apart, geneticists can deduce roughly how far apart two genes are on a chromosome if they know the frequency of the crossovers. Geneticists can also use this method to infer the presence of certain genes. Genes that typically stay together during recombination are said to be linked. One gene in a linked pair can sometimes be used as a marker to deduce the presence of another gene. This is typically used in order to detect the presence of a disease-causing gene.[2] Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. © by original content developers of Wikipedia. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page Material source: Molecular Biology of the Gene (4th Edition) James D. Watson (Author), Alan M. Weiner (Author), Nancy H. Hopkins (Author) Link: http://www.amazon.com/Molecular-Biology-Gene-4th-Edition/dp/0805396144
Views: 98482 Shomu's Biology
Chromosomal Inheritance
 
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In this video Paul Andersen describes genetics at the chromosomal level. He begins with a simple monohybrid cross as viewed through Mendelian genetics and then shows how genes are distributed through meiosis to possible gametes. This is following by a dihybrid cross and a cross that shows gene linkage. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "File:Drosophila Repleta Lateral.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 13, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Drosophila_repleta_lateral.jpg. "File:Gregor Mendel.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 11, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gregor_Mendel.png. "File:Morgan Crossover 1.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 13, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Morgan_crossover_1.jpg. "File:Punnett Square.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 11, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Punnett_Square.svg. "File:Thomas Hunt Morgan.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 13, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Thomas_Hunt_Morgan.jpg. Giac83, Independent_assortment_%26_segregation svg: LadyofHatsderivative work: Table Showing How the Genes Exchange Acording to Segregation or Independent Assortment during the Meiosis and How This Translates into the Mendel' Laws, 14:10 (UTC). Independent_assortment_%26_segregation.svg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Independent_assortment_%26_segregation-it.svg.
Views: 166493 Bozeman Science
What Are You?
 
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What Are You? So. Are you your body? And if so, how exactly does this work? Lets explore lots of confusing questions. This video is part of a collaboration with CGPGrey. Check out his video here: http://bit.ly/1sphjx2 Support us on Patreon so we can make more videos (and get cool stuff): https://www.patreon.com/Kurzgesagt?ty=h Kurzgesagt merch here: http://bit.ly/1P1hQIH Get the music of the video here: soundcloud:http://bit.ly/22vkC1X bandcamp: http://bit.ly/1UqRN3i http://www.epic-mountain.com THANKS A LOT TO OUR LOVELY PATRONS FOR SUPPORTING US: Nicoleta, Timothy Pifer, Thomas Junier, Sam Posnick, Muhammad Fikri, Michael Wawra, Matt Welch, Nuno Tiago, Leigh Beattie, Erik Onnen, Jonathan Häberle, Adit Kadkol, Benson Hawk, Geraint Scott, Alex Söres, Jake Sobrist, Mark Jobes, Bueno, Pierce Ferriter, Bacon Fat Labs, Raphael Grund, BEn Gazzard, Zurxo, Lovelyn Sapuay, David Enrique Erazo Robles, Matt Carol, Eirik Wilhelm Hamborg, Franco B, Jaroslav Stehlik, John Richardson, Jon R, Jack Hong, Lino Coscia, Kahu Coyle-Puke, Вадим Росток, Aaron Rabenstein, Gamblord, Benjamin Achren, Giorgi, Michael Lee, Jeremy, Spencer Egan, Vitor Gondim Tomaz, Michael Komorowski, Joshua Dittrich, Nawapat Kaweeyanum, Jeffrey McCullough, Nick Longe What Are You? Help us caption & translate this video! http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCsXVk37bltHxD1rDPwtNM8Q&tab=2
Genetic Recombination 1
 
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Views: 467 Efrat Bruck
Bacterial Transduction and Transformation mnemonic technique to memorize
 
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Transformation is the process by which a DNA molecule is taken up from the external environment and incorporated into the genome of the recipient cell. Allows for Recombinant DNA Technology. Involves use of plasmids.. Transduction Involves transfer genetic material from one bacterium to another by a bacteriophage. Acting as a vector, the virus carries its own genome plus a fragment of DNA from the bacterium it has recently infected. If the host bacterium survives the viral attack, recombination may occur. Bacterial conjugation is the temporary direct contact between two bacterial cells leading to an exchange of genetic material (DNA). This exchange is unidirectional, i.e. one bacterial cell is the donor of DNA and the other is the recipient. In this way, genes are transferred laterally amongst existing bacterial as opposed to vertical gene transfer in which genes are passed on to offspring.
Genetics - Lost and Found: Crash Course History of Science #25
 
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Sometimes trail blazers of science aren't famous like Darwin or Pasteur. Sometimes they're humble Abbots, just growing peas in the back of their Abbey. This is the story of Gregor Mendel and how his work was done, lost, then found again. *** Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Mark Brouwer, Kenneth F Penttinen, Trevin Beattie, Satya Ridhima Parvathaneni, Erika & Alexa Saur, Glenn Elliott, Justin Zingsheim, Jessica Wode, Eric Prestemon, Kathrin Benoit, Tom Trval, Jason Saslow, Nathan Taylor, Brian Thomas Gossett, Khaled El Shalakany, Indika Siriwardena, SR Foxley, Sam Ferguson, Yasenia Cruz, Eric Koslow, Caleb Weeks, D.A. Noe, Shawn Arnold, Malcolm Callis, Advait Shinde, William McGraw, Andrei Krishkevich, Rachel Bright, Mayumi Maeda, Kathy & Tim Philip, Jirat, Ian Dundore -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids
Views: 89051 CrashCourse
What is HUMAN GENETIC VARIATION? What does HUMAN GENETIC VARIATION mean?
 
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What is HUMAN GENETIC VARIATION? What does HUMAN GENETIC VARIATION mean? HUMAN GENETIC VARIATION meaning - HUMAN GENETIC VARIATION definition - HUMAN GENETIC VARIATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Human genetic variation is the genetic differences both within and among populations. There may be multiple variants of any given gene in the human population (genes), leading to polymorphism. Many genes are not polymorphic, meaning that only a single allele is present in the population: the gene is then said to be fixed. On average, in terms of DNA sequence all humans are 99.5% similar to any other humans. No two humans are genetically identical. Even monozygotic twins, who develop from one zygote, have infrequent genetic differences due to mutations occurring during development and gene copy-number variation. Differences between individuals, even closely related individuals, are the key to techniques such as genetic fingerprinting. Alleles occur at different frequencies in different human populations, with populations that are more geographically and ancestrally remote tending to differ more. Causes of differences between individuals include independent assortment, the exchange of genes (crossing over and recombination) during meiosis and various mutational events. There are at least two reasons why genetic variation exists between populations. Natural selection may confer an adaptive advantage to individuals in a specific environment if an allele provides a competitive advantage. Alleles under selection are likely to occur only in those geographic regions where they confer an advantage. The second main cause of genetic variation is due to the high degree of neutrality of most mutations. Most mutations do not appear to have any selective effect one way or the other on the organism. The main cause is genetic drift, this is the effect of random changes in the gene pool. In humans, founder effect and past small population size (increasing the likelihood of genetic drift) may have had an important influence in neutral differences between populations. The theory that humans recently migrated out of Africa supports this. The study of human genetic variation has both evolutionary significance and medical applications. It can help scientists understand ancient human population migrations as well as how different human groups are biologically related to one another. For medicine, study of human genetic variation may be important because some disease-causing alleles occur more often in people from specific geographic regions. New findings show that each human has on average 60 new mutations compared to their parents. Apart from mutations, many genes that may have aided humans in ancient times plague humans today. For example, it is suspected that genes that allow humans to more efficiently process food are those that make people susceptible to obesity and diabetes today.
Views: 4912 The Audiopedia
Gene Transfer Conjugation F Factor plasmid
 
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In this video I talk about the second type of gene transfer conjugation or bacterial sex. I go over what conjugation is and give examples of the various donors such as F+, Hfr, and F'. I also show the results of the crosses between these donors and F- cell which does not have the f factor plasmid.
Views: 10765 FortuneFavorsPrep
Black Americans Find Out Which African Tribe They're From
 
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Three Black Americans find out which tribe and people group they share genetic fingerprints with in Africa! Credits: https://www.buzzfeed.com/bfmp/videos/63599 Check out more awesome videos at BuzzFeedVideo! https://bit.ly/YTbuzzfeedvideo GET MORE BUZZFEED: https://www.buzzfeed.com https://www.buzzfeed.com/videos https://www.youtube.com/buzzfeedvideo https://www.youtube.com/asis https://www.youtube.com/buzzfeedmultiplayer https://www.youtube.com/buzzfeedviolet https://www.youtube.com/perolike https://www.youtube.com/ladylike BuzzFeedVideo BuzzFeed’s flagship channel. Sometimes funny, sometimes serious, always shareable. New videos posted daily! To see behind-the-scenes & more, follow us on Instagram @buzzfeedvideo http://bit.ly/2JRRkKU Love BuzzFeed? Get the merch! BUY NOW: https://goo.gl/gQKF8m MUSIC Licensed via Audio Network STILLS Vintage national flag of Russia background myistock88/Getty Images Dark wood texture background lukbar/Getty Images Black texture background eamanver/Getty Images Yellow paper background, colorful paper texture Dmytro Synelnychenko/Getty Images Genuine leather texture background Armastas/Getty Images Orange fabric texture for background Dmytro Synelnychenko/Getty Images Africa watercolor map in front of a white background werbeantrieb/Getty Images Colorful conga drum for party at camp Sinenkiy/Getty Images kansas,missouri,usa. 09-15-17, beautiful kansas city skyline at night. Joecho-16/Getty Images Maracas Beach Trinidad , Blue Caribbean Ocean Waves and Shoreline visible along with palm trees and mountains Imzan Ogir/Getty Images clear wet sands beach texture background kaisorn/Getty Images waving flag grebeshkovmaxim/Getty Images Blue background with ornaments Dmytro Synelnychenko/Getty Images White wooden textured board surface background, top view. undefined undefined/Getty Images Craft paper pink or rose gold textured background oatawa/Getty Images VIDEO Typical colonial street of Trinidad, Cuba Rostislavv/Getty Images Entering Mississippi cineman69/Getty Images The street in Trinidad, Cuba CaptureLight/Getty Images Top View of a Beach gustavofrazao/Getty Images This bridge spans the Mississippi River from Memphis, Tennessee to West Memphis, Arkansas ChrisBoswell/Getty Images Rainbow DNA DeoSum/Getty Images Close-up christmas garland and handmade balls on a playd with golden lights. Christmas concept. Home decor ToL_U4F/Getty Images Beale Street Drone Footage Luke Bolin/Getty Images Flag of Arkansas Waving in the Wind NicolasMe/Getty Images on the upper side of corrupt urbanization castle, kadifekale, izmir videomaker/Getty Images EXTERNAL CREDITS African Ancestry http://www.africanancestry.com/home/
Views: 920340 BuzzFeedVideo
Africans aren't pure Homo Sapiens either (Archaic species interbreeding in Africa)
 
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African ancestors interbred with Archaic species Anatomically modern humans interbred with more archaic hominin forms even before they migrated out of Africa, a team of researchers has found. The discovery suggests genetic exchange with their more morphologically diverged neighbors was more widespread than previously thought and all humans today may carry genes from now-extinct Homo species. When we discuss the origins of modern humans, the term ‘Out of Africa’ is a bit misleading. Our common ancestors came not from Africa as a whole but from a relatively small area somewhere in East Africa. Beginning around 80,000 years ago, this area was the scene of several population expansions that culminated in a ‘big bang’ c. 60,000 BP (Watson et al., 1997). This was a sustained expansion that pushed out of Africa and into Europe, Asia, Oceania, and the Americas. These modern humans spread at the expense of more archaic ‘hominins’: Neanderthals in Europe and West Asia, and other poorly known groups elsewhere. But the latter were not totally replaced, as seen in the 1 to 4% Neanderthal admixture of present-day Europeans, East Asians, and Papuans. This has led some people to quip that only Africans are pure Homo sapiens: Better yet, and a blow to Caucasian and Asian racists, the comparison of the human and Neanderthal genome makes it clear that it is only Africans who are 100 percent Homo sapiens, while in European (including American and Australian settlers) and Asian populations one can find up to 4 percent DNA stemming from the archaic and often maligned Neanderthal species - a hominid that went extinct more than 20,000 years ago. (Camphausen, 2010) Well, no. Sub-Saharan Africans actually have more archaic admixture. The difference is that it came not from Neanderthals but from archaic groups within Africa. About 13% of the sub-Saharan gene pool comes from an earlier expansion of pre-modern hominins that occurred c. 111,000 years ago and seems to correspond to the entry of Skhul-Qafzeh hominins into the Middle East (Watson et al., 1997). This higher level of admixture may have come about because archaic Africans were behaviorally and physically closer to modern humans than the Neanderthals were. Nonetheless, these ‘Paleoafricans’ were clearly archaic. They lacked something that modern humans had. What was this disadvantage that ultimately removed them from the struggle for existence? The answer is much debated, but most authors posit a limited capacity for symbolic thinking and social organization: […] the African exodus was predated by a cultural revolution involving new stone blade technologies, skin working tools, ornaments and imported red ochre […] More advanced symbolic systems in language and religious beliefs could have provided a competitive advantage to a group by promoting coordination and cohesion. (Atkinson et al., 2009) Thus, when we discuss human origins, the real split was not between Africans and non-Africans but rather between two groups of Africans: archaics and moderns. Dienekes (2005) uses the terms ‘Paleoafricans’ and ‘Afrasians’: It is common to distinguish between Africans and non-Africans, with the former being much more genetically diverse than the latter. But, the real "gap" in human origins seems to be between the really old Africans ("Paleoafricans") and the rest ("Afrasians"). The Paleoafrican element is entirely confined to Africa, while the Afrasian one is found in both Africa and Eurasia. Indeed, modern humans can be entirely split into two groups: (i) a group of "pure" Afrasians which includes all non-Africans, and (ii) a group of Afrasian-Paleoafricans which includes all non-Caucasoid Africans. Human groups of entirely Paleoafrican origin, unhybridized with the younger Afrasians are no longer in existence. All of this leads to an intriguing conclusion. Since present-day sub-Saharan Africans were used as a benchmark to estimate Neanderthal admixture in present-day Eurasians, and since Paleoafrican gene sequences should be less ‘derived’ and more similar to Neanderthal gene sequences, Neanderthal admixture in present-day Eurasians is probably a bit higher than the estimated 1 to 4%. http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/2011/09/africans-arent-pure-humans-either/#.VnT5j-Ztd5Y http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110905/full/news.2011.518.html http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/09/110905160918.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Latest+Science+News%29&utm_content=Google+Feedfetcher http://dienekes.blogspot.com/ http://www.pnas.org/content/108/37/15123 http://www.thewire.com/technology/2011/09/it-wasnt-just-neanderthals-ancient-humans-had-sex-other-hominids/42117/
Views: 131794 SLAVIC WORLD